Decoding The Creative Mind
Using futuristic imaging technology, a new neurological study attempts to throw light on how our minds work when we are at our most creative
Can imagination spark only from the right brain? Can you activate particular areas of the brain to foster cognition and creativity? A new Indian neurological research project may have the answers
IN A SOUND-PROOF room in Bengaluru’s affluent Indiranagar neighbourhood, a tall, longhaired man sits among sheaves of paper filled with musical notes that are strewn around a couch, an array of synthesizers and a closedcircuit television: waiting for creativity to strike.
“During a low, dark period of my life, I got an image in my head. I held on to the image and wrote some musical notes on my computer. They stayed in a folder on my desktop for a few weeks till I was inspired to work on them. The image finally took the form of Mountain Solitude,” says Ricky Kej about the process of composing a song that famously found its way into Winds of Samsara, which won a Grammy in the Best New Age Album category in 2015. “As creative beings, most artistes experience moments of self doubt. But I don’t let them go waste. I write music about that emotion as a device to move out of the dark phases. In Mountain Solitude, from the time I thought of it to the time I composed it, there was a clear movement from darkness to light. I was at a better time in my life.”
What goes on in the mind of a composer who conjures up a tune out of thin air or an emotion? How about a painter who stares at a blank canvas till he sees the contours of his creativity crystallise into a face, figure, colour or motif ? Can a copywriter or a journalist working on a deadline afford the luxury of waiting for the creative moment? Does creativity flow only from the right hemisphere of the brain?
A five-year study by the National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (Nimhans), Bangalore, completed in 2015, attempts to provide answers to some of these questions by deconstructing creativity. “It is perhaps among the first few studies in the world to identify those areas of the brain which are active while performing creative tasks,” says Dr Senthil Kumaran, additional professor, Department of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi.
That isn’t the only reason that makes the study special. For a long time, neuroscientists followed the Split Brain theory pioneered by Nobel laureate Roger Sperry, which said that the left half of the brain processed information in a rational, analytical manner while the right half was more involved in tasks that needed imagination, intuition and creativity. One important finding of the Nimhans study is that creativity can flow from the left hemisphere of the brain as well.
The study suggests that a network of regions in both hemispheres of the brain works in tandem in the build-up to the Eureka moment. “This is the first such study in India that I’ve heard of which indicates that creativity can flow out of the left brain too,” says Dr Shirish Hastak of Wockhardt Hospital, Mumbai. Although newer approaches in the realm of creativity research are always good news, but leading brain scientist, Dr Pravat Mandal of the National Brain Research Centre, Gurgaon, strikes a cautious note. “This creativity research hasn’t yet been published in a peer reviewed scientific journal. Research in a controlled environment can tend to be transient. These results need to be tested on common people and validated at various time points. I would wait for the study’s outcome to be published. But I wish the researchers well.”
The academic debate aside, what does the Nimhans study mean for you and me? Having identified the areas of the brain that are active during creative tasks, the study implies that these areas can be stimulated. “Now that we have a clearer picture of the parts of the brain – in both the left and right hemispheres – that are responsible for creativity, we can look at consciously activating them. It can be done either through neuro-feedback training or through everyday tasks responsible for stimulating those parts,” says Dr Jamuna Rajeswaran, additional professor, neuropsychology and cognitive neuroscience at Nimhans.
It could be as simple as learning to play a musical instrument, keeping a diary or carrying out alphabet cancellation exercises designed for children ( see sidebar).
To understand how scientists
The study found that creative people were more open to new experiences
such as Dr Rajeswaran are taking the research findings forward, we head to the Nimhans campus on Hosur Road, about eight kilometres west of Kej’s Indiranagar studio and meet Divya Sadana. Over the last five years, for her PhD thesis done under Rajeswaran’s guidance, research scholar Sadana, 28, had been engaged in an interesting project. It probed the brain functions of people when they were assigned creative tasks. She did this using a technique called functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) that measures brain activity by detecting changes in blood flow. When a brain area is more active, it consumes more oxygen to meet its task and there is increased flow of blood to the area.
For the study, 30 artists, designers, illustrators, musicians and writers from Bengaluru’s creative hubs such as the National Institute of Design, the Shristi School of Design and the Chitra Kala Parishath were compared with an equal number of people with similar demographics and age but without any proven artistic credentials, and another third group of 30 patients suffering from bipolar disorder ( see box). “The idea was to see how these three groups react when performing creative tasks inside a brain
Dr Divya Sadana (below) and Dr Jamuna Rajeswaran (right) of the National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bangalore, are the people behind the project which has identified those areas of the brain that are active when we perform creative tasks scan machine. It also helped us identify cognitive functions that facilitate creativity,” says Sadana.
GET A BRAIN WAVE
In a laboratory that seems straight out of science fiction, Dr Sadana is manipulating a maze of electrodes attached to the scalp of Vinayak Kishore (name changed). Whenever Kishore concentrates hard on the screen, a dolphin on the screen moves forward and hits the ball. If he doesn’t, the screen goes dark. Kishore is participating in neuro-feedback training, a simulative technique administered at Nimhans to those seeking changes in their emotional make-up and enhancing their cognitive function. “Neuro-feedback uses alpha and theta waves to modify brain activity,” explains Dr Rajeswaran. “It makes the brain receptive to relaxation. Olympic gold medallist Abhinav Bindra got 25 sessions of this training in Germany. The alpha wave ensures that you are
relaxed and theta enhances the cognitive function. So, if you are good at music or sport or any other specialised task, the procedure can work towards increasing your cognitive abilities,” says the neuropsychologist.
Dr Pravat Mandal of the National Brain Research Centre says apart from exercises that increase cognition, another new approach to enhance creativity which is yet to be explored is the role of neurotransmitters. It can help correlate brain chemicals, functional connectivity (brain network modulation ) and neuropsychological testing.
Even if they didn’t go in for mechanical interventions to improve cognition and bolster creativity, most Indian parents would be better off if they moved away from the anti-creativity education model of rote learning popular in the country and inculcated the creative habit in their children, says Dr Hastak of Wockhardt Hospital, Mumbai. “Studies have shown that regularly playing a musical instrument, particularly the piano, can improve the functioning of certain areas of the brain (such as the frontal and the frontoparietal regions) that controls motor skills, hearing and memory,” adds the neurologist.
MEET THE MAVERICKS
One of the other important findings of the study was to identify the traits that creative people displayed. Were the minds of the creative mavericks wired differently? In the study, the creative group [as opposed to the non-creative and bipolar groups] scored higher on cognitive functions such as attention and speed of processing information.
They were not worried about finding one correct answer but were happy with multiple realities. Also, they came up with quirky, out-of-the-box responses to questionnaires. “While most people responded with the sun, moon, chapati and tyre to a question on what a circle reminded them of, Shyam Narayan, one of the participants in the study, said it reminded him of an Enso, a Zen icon denoting a circle in Japanese. Upon enquiring, I learnt that an Enso has to be drawn in uninhibited brushstrokes to express a moment when the mind is free to let the body create. I was amazed at the breadth of Shyam’s knowledge,” says Dr Sadana.
Narayan, 36, who runs a design studio in the Garden City, says he joined the brain study as a part of his pursuit to understand how people and things function. “Ever since I was a student at IIT-Mumbai’s Industrial Design Centre, I’ve been curious about human-machine interactions. Now that I have a design studio which specialises in creating apps and user interfaces, it becomes even more important that I understand people’s outlook towards concepts.”
It helps that Narayan is a creative soul. While still at school, he formed a band called Mother Jane, which became popular. “Later, the original members of the band, spread across all corners of the world Skyped and decided to stoke things up a bit with another band called Pseutopia,” he says. What’s with the nomenclature? “Well, it is one part pseudo, one part utopia. It is part of how we see thing happening. People are selling pseutopias and people are buying pseutopias in life and in music.”
CREATIVE AND RESTLESS
Creative people are less conscientious, more self-accepting and sometimes impulsive, suggests the Nimhans study. Many people in the creative group that Sadana worked with turned out to be multifaceted and open to new experiences.
Consider content creator Vishnu Rao. Rao, 30, who works with a leading media buying agency based in Bengaluru, was excited at the possibility of getting his brain scanned. “I’d heard all these stories about claustrophobia and I wanted to experience it myself. Putting my head into unknown terrain was unsettling at first, but I got used to it. Then I heard the whirr and thud of the machine, which can be scary. But luckily with all the visual clues it wasn’t dark. I was looking into a
The idea was to stimulate parts of the brain that were active during creative tasks