Plan right and ex­e­cute well

Con­sol­i­date all the knowl­edge you have been re­ceiv­ing in school for Class 12 bi­ol­ogy

Hindustan Times (Delhi) - HT Education - - Front Page - Savita Sharma

So, we have en­tered the last trimester of Class 12. It is not only the board ex­ams which are ap­proach­ing. It is the be­gin­ning of a new jour­ney which is go­ing to take you to your bright and bril­liant fu­ture. Now is the time to con­sol­i­date all the knowl­edge which you have been gath­er­ing day af­ter day sit­ting in your class­rooms. Right plan­ning and proper ex­e­cu­tion is very cru­cial to score well.

There are 16 chap­ters, ar­ranged in five units, in the Class 12 bi­ol­ogy syl­labus. Marks al­lo­ca­tion to dif­fer­ent units is as: Unit I - re­pro­duc­tion, 14 marks Unit II - ge­net­ics and evo­lu­tion, 18 marks, Unit III - bi­ol­ogy in hu­man wel­fare, 14 marks Unit IV - biotech­nol­ogy, 10 marks Unit V - ecol­ogy, 14 marks From this year, there will be value-based ques­tions worth three or five marks.

While pre­par­ing for your boards, go unit-wise. Pre­pare all the chap­ters of each unit to­gether as they are re­lated. As unit II car­ries the max­i­mum marks, my sug­ges­tion is that you start your prepa­ra­tion from this one. All the three chap­ters of this unit are very im­por­tant. In the first chap­ter, prin­ci­ples and pro­cesses of in­her­i­tance, study very thor­oughly both the laws of in­her­i­tance and how to ex­plain them with the help of mono­hy­brid and di­hy­brid cross. Sex-linked in­her­i­tance as well as au­to­so­mal and sex-linked dis­eases are other im­por­tant topics of this chap­ter. In molec­u­lar ba­sis of in­her­i­tance, var­i­ous ex­per­i­ments like Grif­fith’s ex­per­i­ment, Harshey and Chase, Me­sel­son and Stahl’s ex­per­i­ment and their di­a­grams are im­por­tant. This en­tire chap­ter is very im­por­tant, so pre­pare thor­oughly. From evo­lu­tion, in ad­di­tion to ori­gin of life (in­clud­ing Miller and Urey’s ex­per­i­ment) lay spe­cial em­pha­sis on nat­u­ral se­lec­tion, Hardy-Wein­berg prin­ci­ple and adap­tive ra­di­a­tion.

Unit IV is re­lated to unit II so af­ter unit II pick unit IV. There are just two chap­ters in this unit but both are very im­por­tant. In unit I, chap­ter two and three are more im­por­tant than chap­ter one and four. Sper­mato­ge­n­e­sis, oo­ge­n­e­sis, hor­monal con­trol of MRS and FRS, men­strual cy­cle, mi­crosporo­ge­n­e­sis, megas­poro­ge­n­e­sis, dou­ble fer­til­i­sa­tion, triple fu­sion and apomixes, meth­ods of birth con­trol are some of the very im­por­tant topics of this unit. In unit III, in­nate and ac­quired im­mu­nity ac­tive and pas­sive im­mu­nity, T and B lym­pho­cytes, hu­moral and cell me­di­ated im­mu­nity, can­cer, and AIDS are im­por­tant topics. You should also be well versed in hy­brid va­ri­eties of plants and an­i­mals and dis­eases they are re­sis­tant to. In Ecol­ogy, S and J-shaped pop­u­la­tion growth, in­ter­ac­tions among or­gan­isms, pro­duc­tiv­ity, suc­ces­sion, eco­log­i­cal pyra­mids, sewage treat­ment, bio­mag­ni­fi­ca­tions, eu­troph­i­ca­tion and pol­lu­tion are some im­por­tant topics.

The en­tire pa­per will be from the NCERT book. So, read ev­ery word of it.

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