The sweet talk

Ex­perts tell us about one of the most preva­lent life­style ill­nesses, di­a­betes, and pro­vide tips on how to live a fuller life de­spite be­ing af­fected by it

Hindustan Times (Lucknow) - Live - - My City - Saro­jini Jose With in­puts from Dr Mangesh Ti­waskar, di­a­betol­o­gist and car­di­ol­o­gist, Karuna Hos­pi­tal, Bori­vali (W), Kan­chan Pat­ward­han, clin­i­cal nu­tri­tion­ist, Ar­o­gya Hos­pi­tal, Thane and Dr Pramod Tri­pathi, di­a­betol­o­gist, Free­dom From Di­a­betes Clinic, Pune.

Yes­ter­day, the world cel­e­brated World Di­a­betes Day (WDD) — a day ded­i­cated to in­creas­ing an un­der­stand­ing of the life­style dis­ease. Cel­e­brated on Novem­ber 14 ev­ery year, WDD was first cre­ated in 1991 by the In­ter­na­tional Di­a­betes Fed­er­a­tion (IDF) and the World Health Or­ga­ni­za­tion. It is now an an­nual event with dif­fer­ent themes each year and the theme for this year is ‘women and di­a­betes’.

The Oxford dic­tionary de­fines di­a­betes aka di­a­betes mel­li­tus (DM) as, “A dis­ease in which the body’s abil­ity to pro­duce or re­spond to the hor­mone in­sulin is im­paired, re­sult­ing in ab­nor­mal me­tab­o­lism of car­bo­hy­drates and el­e­vated lev­els of glu­cose in the blood.” Dr Pradeep Gadge, di­a­betol­o­gist, Dr Gadge’s Di­a­betes Care Cen­tre, Gore­gaon (W), fur­ther ex­plains the var­i­ous types of di­a­betes in­clud­ing the three ma­jor types — type 1, type 2 and ges­ta­tional:

Type 1 DM: This re­sults from the fail­ure of the pan­creas to pro­duce enough in­sulin, and is com­mon in chil­dren. The pa­tient re­quires life­long in­sulin treat­ment. Gen­er­ally, this is a frus­trat­ing dis­ease as it re­quires reg­u­lar self-mon­i­tor­ing of blood glu­cose, timely in­sulin in­jec­tions, and mul­ti­ple fol­low-ups with the doc­tor. And even after do­ing so, sugar lev­els tend to fluc­tu­ate.

Type 2 DM: This be­gins with in­sulin re­sis­tance, a con­di­tion in which cells fail to re­spond to in­sulin prop­erly. Peo­ple with type 2 di­a­betes make in­sulin, but their cells don’t use it as well as they should. This kind of di­a­betes is com­mon in adults. Ges­ta­tional di­a­betes:

This hap­pens only dur­ing preg­nancy. Dur­ing preg­nancy, the pla­centa makes hor­mones that can lead to a build-up of sugar in your blood. Usu­ally, your pan­creas can make enough in­sulin to han­dle that. If not, your blood sugar lev­els will rise and can cause ges­ta­tional di­a­betes. Ges­ta­tional di­a­betes makes one more prone to de­velop type 2 di­a­betes. A ma­jor cause for ges­ta­tional di­a­betes is be­ing over­weight be­fore get­ting preg­nant.

LADA: LADA stands for La­tent Au­toim­mune Di­a­betes of Adult­hood. LADA is a form of type 1 di­a­betes that de­vel­ops later into adult­hood. It is an au­toim­mune dis­ease in which the body’s im­mune sys­tem at­tacks and kills off in­sulin pro­duc­ing cells.

MODY: This stands for Ma­tu­rity On­set Di­a­betes of the Young and is more likely to be in­her­ited than other types of di­a­betes, due to its stronger ge­netic risk fac­tor. It is a form of di­a­betes that de­vel­ops be­fore the pa­tient reaches 25. Steroid in­duced di­a­betes: Cor­ti­cos­teroids are used to re­duce harm­ful in­flam­ma­tion but can lead to di­a­betes. Peo­ple who are al­ready at a higher risk of type 2 di­a­betes or those who need to take steroids for longer pe­ri­ods of time are the most susceptible to de­vel­op­ing this kind of di­a­betes.

WATCH OUT FOR THESE DI­A­BETES SYMP­TOMS

Hunger and fa­tigue: If the body doesn’t make enough or any in­sulin, or if the cells re­sist the in­sulin that the body makes, the glu­cose from food can’t get into the cells leav­ing one with no en­ergy. This can

make a per­son more hun­gry and tired than usual Fre­quent uri­na­tion and thirst: Nor­mally, body re­ab­sorbs glu­cose as it passes through the kid­neys. But when di­a­betes raises blood sugar, kid­neys may not be able to do so. This causes the body to make more urine, and that re­quires more fluid in­take Slowed down heal­ing:

Over time, high blood sugar af­fects blood flow and cause nerve dam­age. This makes it hard for body to heal wounds

Un­planned weight loss: If the body can’t get en­ergy from food, it starts burn­ing mus­cle and fat for en­ergy, mak­ing one lose a lot of weight.

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