PRE­DICT & PRE­VENT

Preven­tive op­tions for peo­ple who are at high risk of in­her­ited can­cer

India Today - - SPORT -

COLON

Have a rou­tine colonoscopy ev­ery 1 or 2 years, be­gin­ning at pu­berty; oth­er­wise screen with en­doscopy. Rel­a­tives of peo­ple test­ing pos­i­tive should con­sider ge­netic coun­selling and test­ing. Large doses of aspirin over a long pe­riod of time may re­duce risk. But be­ware of side ef­fects. Doc­tors may rec­om­mend re­moval of en­tire colon and rec­tum in case of rare, in­her­ited syn­dromes. GENE APC mu­ta­tion

UTER­INE

Med­i­cal ex­am­i­na­tion of uterus and ovaries ev­ery year if at high risk. En­dome­trial biopsy ( tis­sue sam­ple taken from lin­ing of uterus) based on symp­toms or ex­am­i­na­tion ev­ery year, start­ing at age 30- 35. Utra­sound based on symp­toms or ex­am­i­na­tion. Hys­terec­tomy ( re­moval of uterus). GENE HNPCC, BRCA mu­ta­tion

BREAST

Ge­netic coun­selling or anal­y­sis of fam­ily, per­sonal his­tory. Screen­ing tests from breast self- ex­am­i­na­tion, clin­i­cal ex­am­i­na­tion to lab test of tis­sue. Ge­netic tests that look for cer­tain gene mu­ta­tions. Risk- re­duc­tion strate­gies like chemo­pre­ven­tion and pro­phy­lac­tic mas­tec­tomy. GENE BRCA1, BRCA2 mu­ta­tion

OVARY

Pelvic ex­am­i­na­tion ev­ery 1- 2 years; ev­ery year from age 30. Pelvic ul­tra­sound per symp­toms from age 30 or sooner, go­ing by fam­ily his­tory. Oral con­tra­cep­tives can re­duce ovar­ian can­cer by 50%. Oophorec­tomy ( ovary re­moval) on ab­nor­mal ex­am­i­na­tion. GENE BRCA, HER2, HNPCC mu­ta­tion

THY­ROID

Sur­gi­cal re­moval of thy­roid gland elim­i­nates the risk of cer­tain types of thy­roid can­cer. Ahealthy diet, with five serv­ings of fruits and veg­eta­bles daily. An­tiox­i­dants pro­tect cells from dam­age. Un­sat­u­rated fats ( Omega- 3 fatty acids) may also help pro­tect against can­cer. GENE RET mu­ta­tion

Source: Can­cer Ge­net­ics Clinic, Tata Me­mo­rial Hos­pi­tal and ACTREC, Mum­bai; Dept. of Molec­u­lar On­col­ogy, Ad­yar Can­cer In­sti­tute, Chen­nai; Fa­mil­ial Can­cer Clinic, Max Su­per­spe­cial­ity Hos­pi­tal, Delhi

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