Digi­ti­sa­tion of Bat­tle­field: A Re­port

In­di­geni­sa­tion is still a far cry and In­dia has a long way to go in de­vel­op­ing core bat­tle­field tech­nolo­gies, opined ex­perts at the sem­i­nar or­gan­ised by SP Guide Pub­li­ca­tions in col­lab­o­ra­tion with CLAWS on Oc­to­ber 31, 2013

SP's LandForces - - FRONT PAGE - Sucheta Das Ma­hopa­tra

In­di­geni­sa­tion is still a far cry and In­dia has a long way to go in de­vel­op­ing core bat­tle­field tech­nolo­gies, opined ex­perts at the sem­i­nar or­gan­ised by SP Guide Pub­li­ca­tions in col­lab­o­ra­tion with CLAWS on Oc­to­ber 31, 2013.

FOR THE SEC­OND CON­SEC­U­TIVE year, SP Guide Pub­li­ca­tions in col­lab­o­ra­tion with the Cen­tre for Land War­fare Stud­ies (CLAWS) or­gan­ised a sem­i­nar on ‘Digi­ti­sa­tion of Bat­tle­field’ which saw the user (In­dian Army), CLAWS and the man­u­fac­turer (in­dus­try) de­lib­er­at­ing on re­quire­ments of the mod­ern digi­tised bat­tle­field and the de­vel­op­ments of core tech­nolo­gies to sup­port it.

In­au­gu­ral Ses­sion

The in­au­gu­ral ses­sion was opened by Ma­jor Gen­eral (Retd) Dhruv C. Ka­toch, Di­rec­tor, CLAWS and was fol­lowed by keynote ad­dress by Lt Gen­eral Anil Bhalla, Di­rec­tor Gen­eral, Per­spec­tive Plan­ning and Pres­i­dent Ex­ec­u­tive Coun­cil, CLAWS. “In­dian bat­tle space is highly com­plex,” said Lt Gen­eral Anil Bhalla and added that on one hand we have high-end tech­nol­ogy and on the other there are ob­so­lete tech­nolo­gies. He opined that it is wrong to say that only the Mech­a­nised Forces are suited for high-end tech­nol­ogy. “A sim­ple thing like the di­rec­tion fin­der will help the sol­dier in the bat­tle­field. We need a mod­ern frame­work to pro­vide high-end tech­nol­ogy to the sol­dier on the ground, but to ab­sorb the tech­nol­ogy for the sol­dier at the grass­roots level is a dif­fi­cult task. Mind­set is the big­gest chal­lenge and add to it is the is­sue of con­stant need for upgra­da­tion.” He said that the de­fence in­dus­try and pub­lic-pri­vate part­ner­ship (PPP) model should be pro­gressed rapidly and In­dia is def­i­nitely, though slowly and steadily grow­ing into a net­worked 21st cen­tury force. Giv­ing the vote of thanks, Jayant Baran­wal, Chair­man and Man­ag­ing Di­rec­tor, SP Guide Pub­li­ca­tions thanked CLAWS, Honey­well, DRS and Cisco for their sup­port in or­gan­is­ing the sem­i­nar, as the or­gan­i­sa­tion gears up to cel­e­brate its 50-year jour­ney in 2014.

Ses­sion I

The first ses­sion be­gan with the re­lease of the book Pak­istan’s Tac­ti­cal Nu­clear Weapons: Con­flict Re­dux writ­ten by Bri­gadier (Retd) Gurmeet Kan­wal and Dr Monika Chan­so­ria by the Chair­per­son Lt Gen­eral (Retd) Davin­der Ku­mar fol­lowed by a dis­cus­sion on “Tech­nol­ogy-Im­per­a­tive for Na­tional Ca­pa­bil­ity”. The dis­cus­sions be­gan with the view that In­dia has missed the in­dus­trial rev­o­lu­tion, es­pe­cially based on home­grown so­lu­tions and needs to catch up to achieve 70 per cent in­di­geni­sa­tion by 2020. The Chair be­gan by say­ing that tech­nol­ogy changes war­fare but does not de­ter­mine war­fare. Tech­nol­ogy shapes war­fare and not war which is time­less. Tech­nol­ogy and war­fare have never been far afar. Pos­ses­sion of nec­es­sary tech­nol­ogy is a na­tional im­per­a­tive and no na­tion will part with its crit­i­cal tech- nol­ogy and hence na­tions have to de­velop tech­no­log­i­cal ab­sorp­tion ca­pa­bil­ity and the en­abling pol­icy.

Ma­jor Gen­eral P.K. Sri­vasa­tava, Ad­di­tional Di­rec­tor Gen­eral, Ar­tillery, gave a pre­sen­ta­tion on “Sen­sors: Util­i­sa­tion and Trends.” He high­lighted on the re­al­i­ties and prob­lems faced at the ground level and said that “ev­ery sol­dier is a sen­sor”. The ground­based hu­man in­tel­li­gence re­sources in­clude re­con­nais­sance war­riors, ghataks, com­mando op­er­a­tions, in­tel­li­gence sources, re­con­nais­sance troops of mech­a­nised ar­moured reg­i­ments, Spe­cial Forces and un­manned ground sys­tems. Like­wise the ground-based elec­tronic sen­sors in­clude, unat­tended ground sen­sors, bat­tle­field sur­veil­lance radar-short-range, sound rang­ing, etc. The aerial sen­sors in­clude un­manned aerial ve­hi­cles (UAVs), aerostats, Army Avi­a­tion he­li­copters, satel­lites/mil­i­tary and civil. The sen­sors are utilised at all lev­els in the Army he said and added that what we need is a fully au­to­mated sys­tem. “What is re­quired is a com­mon op­er­a­tional pic­ture (COP) which can be gen­er­ated and flashed to all com­man­ders si­mul­ta­ne­ously, so that all at all lev­els know all. There is the need for proper vi­su­al­i­sa­tion soft­ware. This is the re­quire­ment of digi­ti­sa­tion in sen­sors and we are grossly lack­ing here.”

Lt Gen­eral K. Suren­dranath, Chief of Staff, Head­quar­ters South­ern Com­mand, spoke on “Plat­forms: Make Tech­nol­ogy the Driver”. He said tech­nol­ogy is the new game changer and all el­e­ments of warfight­ing sys­tem can be con­trolled re­motely with net­cen­tric­ity at its best. Space-based sur­veil­lance, ad­vanced cruise mis­siles, pre­ci­sion guided weapons, UAVs, new tech­nol­ogy weapons are chang­ing ground re­al­i­ties of con­ven­tional wars. While thank­ing Steve Jobs for in­vent­ing Ap­ple and mak­ing hard­ware an en­abler of the soft­ware, he said in In­dia it is the other way round as we pro­cure hard­ware first and then the soft­ware. On the pro­cure­ment and ac­qui­si­tion process, he said that tech­nol­ogy comes with a price and is like ‘I scratch your back and you scratch my back’ pol­icy. This is with all trans­fer of tech­nol­ogy (ToT) cases with other coun­tries.

Lt Gen­eral Anil Bhalla gave a pre­sen­ta­tion on the “Core Tech­nolo­gies Im­pact­ing Mod­ern War­fare” and opined tech­nol­ogy to­day is driven pri­mar­ily by the de­mands of the com­mer­cial sec­tor. While sci­ence will drive tech­nol­ogy, tech­nol­ogy will drive war­fare. He spoke on ap­pli­ca­tion of ma­te­rial sci­ence, com­bat ve­hi­cle engineering, bat­tle­field sur­veil­lance (satel­lites, aerostats, air­borne sen­sors, strate­gic UAVs, air de­fence radar); fu­ture com­bat sys­tems (DEW, UGV, CBRN), in­for­ma­tion war­fare, elec­tronic war­fare and cy­ber war­fare. On the in­for­ma­tion com­mu­ni­ca­tion tech­nol­ogy, he said that the big­gest chal­lenge is in in­ter­fac­ing this tech­nol­ogy and where

the field com­man­ders lack. “We need a strong in­dus­trial base, iden­tify tech­ni­cal gaps, col­lab­o­rate, adopt tech­nol­ogy and shorten the tech­no­log­i­cal de­vel­op­ment cy­cle.”

Lt Gen­eral (Retd) Davin­der Ku­mar spoke on “Anti-tech­nol­ogy: Shap­ing the Bat­tle­field” and gave de­tails of the anti-tank tech­nolo­gies rang­ing from night vi­sion de­vices to an­ti­tank mu­ni­tions, e-bombs, anti-satel­lite weapons (ASAT), di­rected en­ergy weapons. The util­ity of a tank to­day would di­min­ish in the war­fare of tomorrow, he said and also added that cy­ber war­fare is noth­ing but anti-tech­nol­ogy and at the heart of asym­met­ric war­fare is cy­ber war­fare. He gave the ex­am­ples of Is­raeli prod­ucts like Iron Fist and Tro­phy as anti-tech­nol­ogy mu­ni­tions. On the anti-satel­lite weapons, he said, China is in­vest­ing a lot.

K.P.M. Das, Vice Pres­i­dent, Global De­fence and Na­tional Se­cu­rity So­lu­tions, Cisco, gave a pre­sen­ta­tion on “Uni­fied Bat­tlespace”. He said bat­tlespace in­cludes all op­er­a­tional as­pects of air, land, sea and the elec­tro­mag­netic spec­trum that en­com­pass the area of in­flu­ence and area of in­ter­est.” He de­fined a de­ployed en­vi­ron­ment as com­mu­ni­ca­tion on the halt and mo­bile en­vi­ron­ment as com­mu­ni­ca­tion on the move. He de­scribed what are the chal­lenges faced and gave sev­eral ex­am­ples of suc­cess­ful im­ple­men­ta­tion in de­ployed en­vi­ron­ment. In NATO: DCIS – (fully con­verged mo­bile brigade) by Cas­sid­ian; Nether­lands: TITAAN (fully con­verged mo­bile brigade) – RNLA; in USA: WINT – (fully con­verged mo­bile brigade) – Gen­eral Dy­nam­ics; Ger­many: MOBKOMSYS – MPLS de­ployed satel­lite sys­tem – Cas­sid­ian; UK: Fal­con – de­ployed IP wide area sys­tem – BAE; Aus­tria: field com­mu­ni­ca­tions re­fresh – TBD; in In­dia TCS is yet to be fielded; Korea is TICN – un­der field­ing by Sam­sung Thales.

The ques­tion and an­swer ses­sion which wit­nesses sev­eral queries from Jayant Baran­wal. To his ques­tion on why does In­dia get hard­ware and then soft­ware, Lt Gen­eral K. Suren­dranath said it is be­cause of the ac­qui­si­tion process. “Soft­ware is a dif­fer­ent ball­game and hence its ac­qui­si­tion takes time.” Ma­jor Gen­eral Sri­vas­tava fielded ques­tions on the sta­tus of Ar­tillery net­work Shakti. He said that Project Shakti,which is an Ar­tillery Com­bat Com­mand and Con­trol Sys­tem (ACCCS), is a fully digi­tised, in­te­grated and net­worked sys­tem jointly de­vel­oped by the Bharat Elec­tron­ics Lim­ited (BEL), Ben­galuru, Cen­tre for Ar­ti­fi­cial In­tel­li­gence and Ro­bot­ics (CAIR), Ar­ma­ment Re­search and De­vel­op­ment Es­tab­lish­ment (ARDE) and Project Man­age­ment Or­gan­i­sa­tion (PMO) ACCCS of Direc­torate Gen­eral of In­for­ma­tion Sys­tems (DGIS) which has high level of ex­pec­ta­tions at the ground level. He said that the project has cer­tain soft­ware glitches which will soon be sorted out. Lt Gen­eral (Retd) Davin­der Singh con­cluded by say­ing that the ba­sic thing is we need to think and plan as a sys­tem. “Our old plat­forms need upgra­da­tion,” said he.

Ses­sion II

The post lunch ses­sion be­gan with a ses­sion on “Cy­ber and Space” chaired by Lt Gen­eral (Retd) S.P. Kochhar, For­mer Sig­nal Of­fi­cer-in-Chief (SO-in-C), In­dian Army. He spoke on “Cy­ber War­fare: Of­fen­sive and De­fen­sive As­pects.” Cy­ber se­cu­rity ac­cord­ing to him is se­cu­rity of ev­ery­thing that a man posses to­day. It is end-to-end de­fence of ev­ery­thing con­nected to an elec­tronic de­vice, which in­cludes soft­ware, en­gulfs en­tire cy­cle of cy­ber all con­nected with a net­work. He said while the users point is to get se­cu­rity, the ven­dors aim at sell­ing. Our en­deav­our should be in­di­geni­sa­tion of com­po­nents first and cy­ber tools to be ef­fec­tive, must be home grown as all sys­tems and tool im­ported would have mal­ware and no coun­try will give ev­ery­thing. Hence pol­icy changes are re­quired and not only in au­dit but in own­er­ship too. He also spoke on an­a­lyt­ics and said that if you have an­a­lyt­i­cal tools, your pre­dictabil­ity be­comes easy.

Ma­jor Gen­eral A.B. Shivane, Ad­di­tional Di­rec­tor Gen­eral (ADG), Per­spec­tive Plan­ning, gave a pre­sen­ta­tion on “Space: Force Mul­ti­plier for Dig­i­tal Bat­tle­field” and said that the line di­vid­ing war and peace is blurred to­day and hence the re­quire­ment for war preven­tion strate­gies. Space, he said, is not a new do­main in In­dia and gave ex­am­ples of the his­tor­i­cal Pushpak and the Mysorean rocket used dur­ing Tipu Sultan rule. How­ever, space ca­pa­bil­i­ties have es­ca­lated and their util­i­sa­tion has grown man­i­fold. From a force enhancer it has be­come a force en­abler, a medium from where you sup­port the ter­res­trial war­fare and the ul­ti­mate high ground in a digi­tised bat­tle­field. “What is im­por­tant for a na­tion is to en­sure that the coun­try en­joys space se­cu­rity in all its varied do­mains which acts as a force enhancer.” Ma­jor Gen­eral Shivane in­formed that the In­dian Space Re­search Or­gan­i­sa­tion (ISRO) has al­ready launched 71 satel­lites and whole lot of ex­cit­ing ven­tures is com­ing up not only to harness civil ca­pa­bil­ity for mil­i­tary use but also de­fen­sive space con­trolled ca­pa­bil­ity. He said while space is essen­tially joined, it is also a dif­fer­ent do­main with dif­fer­ent tech­nolo­gies and dif­fer­ent ul­til­i­sa­tion for a na­tion and hence it is im­por­tant to have a Joint Space Com­mand to op­ti­mise th­ese ca­pa­bil­i­ties which will trans­late into ground ca­pa­bil­ity. “The fun­da­men­tal se­cu­rity de­ter­mi­nant for the coun­try is the need to hone on de­ter­rence and re­sponse ca­pa­bil­ity to meet the na­tional se­cu­rity ob­jec­tive.”

Air Vice Mar­shal (Retd) Dev Ganesh of Honey­well Aer­pospace gave a pre­sen­ta­tion on “En­ablers for Space Sen­sors in the Dig­i­tal Bat­tle­field” and spoke on mil­i­tary ap­pli­ca­tions of space. Sur­veil­lance by panchro­matic, in­frared, search and res­cue, multi- and hy­per-spec­tral imaging sen­sors; elec­tronic in­tel­li­gence and anal­y­ses of voice and data trans­mis­sions; com­mu­ni­ca­tions: data and voice; con­trolled trans­mis­sions through beam form­ing net­works; air and land ve­hi­cle man­age­ment by sky con­nect, osprey wings, through satel­lite net­works. He gave out de­tails of Honey­well’s minia­ture in­er­tial mea­sure­ment unit (MIMU), the In­ter­fer­o­met­ric Fiber Op­tic Gy­ro­scopes (IFOG) IMU; STARMU, the in­te­grated stellar-in­er­tial at­ti­tude de­ter­mi­na­tion sys­tem for point­ing and sta­bil­i­sa­tion in space ap­pli­ca­tions; re­ac­tion wheel as­sem­bly (RWA) for satel­lite turn­ing/ma­noeu­vring or sta­bil­is­ing; beam form­ing net­works; SkyCon­nect air­craft track­ing sys­tem for track­ing of all air­borne as­sets in all types of ter­rain; SkyCon­nect as a com­pre­hen­sive hard­ware and data so­lu­tions and SkyCon­nect through the Irid­ium Con­stel­la­tion; and the Osprey Wings as an ef­fec­tive com­mu­ni­ca­tion tool for world­wide track­ing, mes­sag­ing and alert­ing, etc. He said the Osprey is be­ing used in Naxal-af­fected ar­eas of the coun­try and the Osprey Wings through the In­marsat satel­lite net­work was first used in In­dia by for­mer Chief Min­is­ter of Andhra Pradesh N. Chan­drababu Naidu in lo­cal trans­port buses.

In the Q&A ses­sion that fol­lowed, the SP Guide Pub­li­ca­tions CMD ques­tioned Air Vice Mar­shal (Retd) Ganesh how would he re­spond to the con­cern that the equip­ment and so­lu­tion com­ing to In­dia from abroad is safe and se­cure. To this, the Honey­well of­fi­cial said that in­di­geni­sa­tion is the key but we can­not lie be­hind. We can­not wait for the light com­bat air­craft (LCA) to hap­pen. In or­der to man­u­fac­ture our­self, the safest way is to go through ToT and we must learn how to ac­quire the tech­nol­ogy.

Ses­sion III

The last ses­sion was on “Op­er­a­tions and Train­ing As­pects” and was chaired by Lt Gen­eral (Retd) Aditya Singh, for­mer GOCin-C, South­ern Com­mand, In­dian Army. Michael O’Hara Kel­ley, Se­nior Pro­gram Man­ager, DRS Tech­nolo­gies, gave a pre­sen­ta­tion on the users per­spec­tive of the “Bat­tle Com­mand Sys­tems” along with Jayesh Shah, Se­nior Prin­ci­pal Engi­neer, DRS Tech­nolo­gies who gave the tech­nol­ogy per­spec­tive of the sys­tem. Kel­ley said the US Army has se­lected DRS Tech­nolo­gies as the sole source provider for the mounted fam­ily of com­put­ing sys­tem (MFOCS) to sup­port the next gen­er­a­tion joint bat­tle com­mand plat­form (JBC-P). He said the DRS sys­tem en­ables right in­for­ma­tion reach the right per­son at the right time in the right for­mat to make the right de­ci­sion con­fi­dently. “Crit­i­cal think­ing is key to suc­cess and it is im­por­tant to em­power crit­i­cal think­ing,” he said and em­pha­sised that “un­der­stand­ing the user is very rel­e­vant”. Jayesh Shah gave de­tails of the con­tin­u­ous per­for­mance of the DRS Net­work & Imaging Sys­tems (NIS) and the prod­ucts and so­lu­tions. DRS he said has fo­cused on pro­vid­ing the best in­te­grated C4ISR so­lu­tions to the In­dian Army which in­cludes rugged com­put­ers and dis­play sys­tems; net­work and com­mu­ni­ca­tions gate­ways; EO/IR sen­sors and ther­mal imaging sys­tems; dis­mounted warfighter sys­tems; mis­sion com­mand soft­ware suite; plat­form C4ISR sys­tems in­te­gra­tion; en­vi­ron­men­tal test­ing; ex­portable hard­ware and soft­ware; full ToT, MToT and IPR op­tions to the In­dian Army and best life cy­cle value in price, per­for­mance and sup­port. Ex­plain­ing MFOCS tech­nol­ogy he said it utilises com­mon, mod­u­lar com­put­ing el­e­ments based ar­chi­tec­ture to pro­vide ba­sic, in­ter­me­di­ate and ad­vanced com­put­ing and net­work­ing so­lu­tions. It in­te­grates ex­ist­ing Force XXI Bat­tle Com­mand Brigade-and-Be­low (FBCB2), fu­ture joint bat­tle com­mand plat­form (JBC-P), and warfighter in­for­ma­tion net­work-tac­ti­cal (WIN-T) ca­pa­bil­i­ties onto a trans­port-ag­nos­tic net­work ar­chi­tec­ture.

Ma­jor Gen­eral R.P. Bhad­ran, Ad­di­tional Di­rec­tor Gen­eral, In­for­ma­tion Sys­tems, In­dian Army, gave a pre­sen­ta­tion on “Ex­pec­ta­tions from Net-Cen­tric­ity in the Bat­tle­field”. Net­work­ing im­proves ef­fi­ciency both in mar­ket and man­age­ment and gave de­tails of how warfight­ing ef­fi­ciency will in­crease with net­work­ing. Net-cen­tric­ity in the bat­tle­field gives real time op­er­a­tional pic­ture which helps in bet­ter com­pre­hen­sion of bat­tle­field; real time in­tel­li­gence pic­ture which light­ens the fog of war; faster de­ci­sion-mak­ing which re­duces the fric­tion in war. He opined that the power of net­cen­tric­ity is de­rived from the ap­pli­ca­tion soft­ware which in­cludes ge­o­graph­i­cal in­for­ma­tion sys­tems and geospa­tial data and cy­ber se­cu­rity sys­tems and not just from the com­put­ers and net­works alone. The NCW sys­tems on the anvil, he said, in­clude com­mand in­for­ma­tion and de­ci­sion sup­port sys­tem (CIDSS): the army strate­gic op­er­a­tional in­for­ma­tion dis­sem­i­na­tion sys­tem (AS­TER­OIDS), bat­tle­field sur­veil­lance sys­tem (BSS), ar­tillery com­mand, con­trol com­mu­ni­ca­tions sys­tem (ACCS), elec­tronic war­fare sys­tem (EWS), air de­fence com­mand and re­port­ing sys­tem (ADC&RS) and bat­tle­field man­age­ment sys­tem (BMS).

The last speaker, Colonel Sameer Chauhan, Se­nior Fel­low, CLAWS, gave a pre­sen­ta­tion on “Mak­ing of a Dig­i­tal War­fare.” Fu­ture con­ven­tional con­flicts will have high-tech con­tent, com­bat­ants will re­quire higher cal­iber, war­fare will be more men­tal than phys­i­cal and would re­quire higher ed­u­ca­tional and tech­ni­cal skills amongst mil­i­tary per­son­nel than what is present now. He high­lighted on hu­man re­source man­age­ment, aware­ness and train­ing. Hu­man re­sources, ac­cord­ing to him, in­cluded the both the gen­er­al­ists and the spe­cial­ists. “Fo­cus on spe­cial­ists and bring the gen­er­al­ist up to that level.”

Dur­ing the Q&A ses­sion that fol­lowed, Ma­jor Gen­eral Bhad­ran in­formed that while the In­dian Army has dig­i­tal maps, it does not have dig­i­tal data. Michael O’Hary re­ply­ing to a ques­tion asked by Jayant Baran­wal said that the sys­tems of­fered by DRS Tech­nolo­gies can be con­fig­ured ac­cord­ing to user de­mand. To yet another ques­tion by him, the pan­elists an­swered as to why the In­dian Navy per­son­nel seem more tech­ni­cally sound than In­dian Army men. “The In­dian Army is huge while In­dian Navy is small and was com­pelled to go in­dige­nous. When in a fight­ing ship, ev­ery­one has a tech­ni­cal space. The In­dian Army has also caught up in the last ten years. Aware­ness is grow­ing but due to sheer size it is slow.”

Ma­jor Gen­eral (Retd) D.C. Ka­toch, in his con­clud­ing re­marks, said that we in In­dia have a long way to go and there is the need for in­di­geni­sa­tion of our sys­tems. “There is no free lunch ex­cept at the mouth of a mouse trap.” The day ended with vote of thanks by Lt Gen­eral (Retd) Naresh Chand, Se­nior Tech­ni­cal Group Ed­i­tor, SP Guide Pub­li­ca­tions.

1 1. Lt Gen­eral Anil Bhalla giv­ing the keynote ad­dress. 2. SP’s Ed­i­tor-in-Chief & CMD Jayant Baran­wal of­fer­ing vote of thanks. 3. Lt Gen­eral (Retd) Devin­der Ku­mar, for­mer Sig­nals Of­fi­cer-in-Chief of In­dian Army, ad­dress­ing the sem­i­nar. Also seen is Lt Gen­eral Anil Bhalla. 4. Panel from left to right - Col (Retd) K.P.M. Das of Cisco, Lt Gen­eral Anil Bhalla, Lt Gen­eral (Retd) Davin­der Ku­mar; Lt Gen­eral K. Suren­dranath and Ma­jor Gen­eral P.K. Sri­vas­tava. 5. Lt Gen­eral K. Suren­dranath, COS,

Head­quar­ters South­ern Com­mand, ad­dress­ing. 6. Lt Gen­eral (Retd) S.P. Kochhar ad­dress­ing dur­ing the sec­ond ses­sion.







1 1. Air Vice Mar­shal (Retd) Dev Ganesh of Honey­well giv­ing a pre­sen­ta­tion on En­ablers for Space Sen­sors. 2. Lt Gen­eral (Retd) Aditya Singh, for­mer GO-in-C, South­ern Com­mand (right) and Michael O’Hara Kel­ley, Se­nior Pro­gram Man­ager, DRS Tech­nolo­gies. 3. Michael O’Hara Kel­ley, Se­nior Pro­gram Man­ager, DRS Tech­nolo­gies, ad­dress­ing dur­ing the third ses­sion.

4. Ma­jor Gen­eral R.P. Bhad­ran, Ad­di­tional DG IS, ad­dress­ing dur­ing the third ses­sion.




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