Mu­nich mas­sacre


The Mu­nich mas­sacre is an in­for­mal name for events that oc­curred dur­ing the 1972 Olympic Games in Mu­nich, Bavaria in south West Ger­many, when mem­bers of the Is­raeli Olympic team were taken hostage and even­tu­ally killed by the Pales­tinian group Black Septem­ber. Shortly af­ter the cri­sis be­gan, the Pales­tini­ans de­manded the re­lease of 234 pris­on­ers held in Is­raeli jails. They also de­manded the re­lease of all mem­bers of the Ger­man Red Army Fac­tion be­ing held in Ger­man pris­ons. Black Septem­ber called the op­er­a­tion ‘Ikrit’ and ‘Bi­ram’ af­ter two Chris­tian Pales­tinian vil­lages whose in­hab­i­tants were ex­pelled by the Ha­ganah in 1948.

The kid­nap­pers killed 11 Is­raeli ath­letes and coaches and a West Ger­man po­lice of­fi­cer. Five of the eight mem­bers of Black Septem­ber were killed by po­lice of­fi­cers dur­ing a failed res­cue at­tempt. The three sur­viv­ing as­sas­sins were cap­tured, but later re­leased by West Ger­many fol­low­ing the hi­jack­ing by Black Septem­ber of a Lufthansa air­liner. Is­rael re­sponded to the killings with Op­er­a­tion Spring of Youth and Op­er­a­tion Wrath of God, dur­ing which Pales­tini­ans sus­pected of

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