In­dian Navy and Coast Guard’s 15-year war­fare ca­pa­bil­ity roadmap


Lead time for naval plat­forms is by far the max­i­mum among the three ser­vices, ne­ces­si­tat­ing far greater fore­sight for as­set ac­cre­tion. In fact, the Navy’s cur­rent de­plet­ing sub­ma­rine strength is the re­sult of a com­bi­na­tion of fac­tors that ham­strung plan­ners at a cru­cial phase. The TCPR on mar­itime tech­nolo­gies, there­fore, is par­tic­u­larly fo­cused on fu­tur­is­tic tech­nolo­gies, keep­ing in mind the lead time nec­es­sary to bring as­sets into the Navy.

The doc­u­ment starts by talk­ing about air-launched anti-sub­ma­rine war­fare weapons, which would in­clude the de­vel­op­ment of su­per-cav­i­tat­ing air-launched un­der­wa­ter weapons in­clud­ing high speed tor­pe­does with ex­tended ranges, light-weight air­launched in­tel­li­gent mines, air-launched tor­pe­does with ranges greater than 15 km, in­tel­li­gent air launched tor­pe­does with loi- ter and self-de­tec­tion ca­pa­bil­i­ties and weapon­i­sa­tion of UAVs with pre­ci­sion-guided am­mu­ni­tion and mis­siles. In the sphere of spe­cial op­er­a­tions and div­ing, the tech­nol­ogy that the Navy would be in­ter­ested in in­clude bat­tle man­age­ment sys­tems for in­te­gra­tion of the spe­cial op­er­a­tion ele­ments with other naval com­po­nents in a net­work-cen­tric en­vi­ron­ment, hands-free se­cure real-time voice and data trans­mit­ting equip­ment for tac­ti­cal and area com­mu­ni­ca­tion, spe­cial pur­pose craft, RHIBs, ve­hi­cles and other as­so­ci­ated sys­tems for spe­cial op­er­a­tion teams, IR/ther­mal and op­ti­cal sights for ob­ser­va­tion and as­sault, sniper area weapons, spe­cial ops equip­ment and ex­plo­sives tai­lor-made to meet sym­met­ric and asym­met­ric threats, small arms sim­u­la­tors and in­door com­bat work-up sta­tions for con­duct of work up and train­ing, mine coun­ter­mea­sures and ex­plo­sive ord­nance dis­posal re­lated equip­ment, ISR equip­ment, equip­ment for con­duct of un­der­wa­ter sal­vage op­er­a­tions, re­com­pres­sion cham­bers (RCCs) and as­so­ci­ated sys­tems.

In the realm of coastal se­cu­rity, the tech­nolo­gies of in­ter­est in­clude un­manned sur­face ves­sels (USVs) for in­ves­ti­ga­tion of con­tacts and pa­trolling, mo­bile radar and AIS sys­tems to cover gaps along the coast, ca­pa­bil­ity to track all ves­sels at sea in IOR, ca­pa­bil­ity to dis­tin­guish rogue ves­sels by con­tact mo­tion anal­y­sis (CMA) and other meth­ods of anal­y­sis from the track data, mod­ern high def­i­ni­tion radars, bet­ter op­ti­cal sights and

night vi­sion de­vices. Con­stant un­der­wa­ter sur­veil­lance will form an im­por­tant part of In­dian Navy’s abil­ity to pro­tect its ves­sels, per­son­nel and un­der­wa­ter in­ter­est from hos­tile sub­marines. The Sea Glider can be used to mon­i­tor shal­low-wa­ter en­vi­ron­ments from fixed po­si­tions on the ocean floor or by mov­ing through the wa­ter to scan large ar­eas for ex­tended pe­ri­ods of time.

The TPCR doc­u­ment also lists the fol­low­ing as sig­nif­i­cant for mar­itime war­fare: ship-launched/re­cov­ered UAVs and UCAVs with in­te­grated radars/IR/Laser/video sur­veil­lance sys­tem, laser-based wake de­tec­tion ca­pa­bil­ity, low fre­quency trans­duc­ers for un­der­wa­ter de­tec­tion, sur­face-to-sub­sur­face strike ca­pa­bil­i­ties com­pris­ing de­vel­op­ment of long, short and medium range su­per-cav­i­tat­ing tor­pe­does, with ac­tive hom­ing heads, de­vel­op­ment of ship fit­ted guns and mount­ings with limited sur­face at­tack ca­pa­bil­ity to en­gage un­armed mer­chant ship­ping, beach soften­ing, anti-air de­fence, in­clud­ing the CIWS gun mounts (like the Raytheon Pha­lanx on the INS Jalashwa) ca­pa­ble of en­gag­ing the low fly- ing sea skim­ming mis­siles, with fire con­trol sys­tems for tar­get ac­qui­si­tion and tar­get iden­ti­fi­ca­tion, im­proved am­mu­ni­tion with limited pre­ci­sion guid­ance for in­creas­ing the range and lethal­ity of SR/MR guns, towed ar­ray, vari­able depth and seabed sur­veil­lance sonar sys­tems and de­vel­op­ment of higher ac­cu­racy RLG-based INS sys­tems. Laser com­mu­ni­ca­tions could be adopted in fu­ture to achieve two-way real-time com­mu­ni­ca­tions with sub­marines at opera- tional depths, says the doc­u­ment, adding, this tech­nol­ogy would also of­fer ex­change of data at very high rates. On the am­phibi­ous air­craft front, the doc­u­ment says that th­ese need to be de­vel­oped for mis­sions like in­tel­li­gence gath­er­ing, HADR, SAR, lo­gis­tics and com­mu­ni­ca­tion du­ties in fleet sup­port, along with con­ven­tional air­craft car­rier. It also calls for un­manned un­der­wa­ter ve­hi­cles (UUVs), where tech­nol­ogy in the field of un­manned ve­hi­cles can also be used to de­velop UUVs which could be used as small, high-speed sub­ma­rine hunters, or mine clear­ance. “The next gen­er­a­tion of sub­marines could carry a num­ber of UUVs ca­pa­ble of pen­e­trat­ing shal­low rivers or canals while the mother sub­ma­rine lies safely out in deeper wa­ter. The UUVs could also be used as for­ward sen­sors, as a means to de­tect mine­fields or as weapon car­ri­ers,” the doc­u­ment sug­gests. On the un­der­wa­ter sur­veil­lance front, the thrust in fu­ture should be to­wards de­vel­op­ment of ad­vanced sonars. In the longer term, it may be pos­si­ble to de­pict ob­jects in three di­men­sions us­ing laser tech­nol­ogy.

INS Sat­pura

S-80 class sub­ma­rine

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