Sem­i­nar Re­port

SP's MAI - - FRONT PAGE - [ By Lt Gen­eral P.C. Ka­toch (Retd) ]

Dur­ing his ad­dress to the Com­bined Com­man­ders’ Con­fer­ence on Oc­to­ber 17, 2014, Prime Min­is­ter Naren­dra Modi had stated, “Beyond the im­me­di­ate, we are fac­ing a fu­ture where se­cu­rity chal­lenges will be less pre­dictable; sit­u­a­tions will evolve and change swiftly; and, tech­no­log­i­cal changes will make re­sponses more dif­fi­cult to keep pace with. The threats may be known, but the en­emy may be in­vis­i­ble. Dom­i­nance of cy­berspace will be­come in­creas­ingly im­por­tant. Con­trol of space may be­come as crit­i­cal as that of land, air and sea. Full-scale wars may be­come rare, but force will re­main an in­stru­ment of de­ter­rence and in­flu­enc­ing be­hav­iour; and the du­ra­tions of con­flict will be shorter.”

Equally im­por­tantly, he added, “We should re­mem­ber that what mat­ters is the ca­pa­bil­ity of the force. When we speak of Dig­i­tal In­dia, we would also like to see a ‘Dig­i­tal Armed Force’” also ask­ing the de­fence forces to give se­ri­ous thought to up­grade tech­no­log­i­cal skills for ef­fec­tive power pro­jec­tion at all lev­els. By men­tion­ing the in­vis­i­ble en­emy, the Prime Min­is­ter was ob­vi­ously re­fer­ring to the grow­ing threat of ter­ror­ism and in­sur­gency that In­dia is fac­ing, which in­cludes re­fo­cus­ing of Al Qaeda to South Asia, en­try of ISIS in Af-Pak re­gion-Mal­dives and the en­hanced ter­ror threat from our neigh­bour­hood; Bangladeshi links to Bur­d­wan blasts, Sri Lankan rad­i­cals un­der­tak­ing surveil­lance spy­ing in South In­dia and the like. The Prime Min­is­ter’s em­pha­sis on a Dig­i­tal In­dia and Digi­tised Armed Force was in con­text of the need to shar­ing of in­for­ma­tion.

In the above con­text, the joint FICCI-SP Guide Pub­li­ca­tions sem­i­nar on ‘Digi­ti­sa­tion of the Bat­tle­field’ held on Oc­to­ber 27, 2014, at the FICCI House was a spe­cial one. Many such sem­i­nars have been held in the past but this time it was in the back­drop of the Prime Min­is­ter’s em­pha­sis on op­ti­mis­ing tech­nol­ogy, his call for a Dig­i­tal In­dia and Digi­tised Armed Force, and above all his call from the ram­parts of the Red Fort on Au­gust 15 for “Make in In­dia, Sell Any­where” which has re­sulted in the open­ing of up of the de­fence- in­dus­trial com­plex to the pri­vate sec­tor in­clud­ing for­eign firms and in­vestors. A day prior to the sem­i­nar, me­dia re­ported the wel­come news that in Au­gust this year the Cab­i­net had also ap­proved FDI in de­fence sec­tor beyond 49 per cent for state-of-the art de­fence man­u­fac­tur­ing. This would jet­ti­son bridg­ing the tech­no­log­i­cal voids. Gov­ern­ment has also lib­er­alised li­cens­ing be­sides mea­sures like gov­ern­ment bear­ing 80 per cent costs for de­vel­op­ing pro­to­types for Army’s bat­tle­field man­age­ment sys­tem (BMS) will help digi­ti­sa­tion of the mil­i­tary. In his ad­dress to the Com­bined Com­man­der’ Con­fer­ence the Prime Min­is­ter also called upon the de­fence es­tab­lish­ment to re­form pro­cure­ment pro­cesses in­clud­ing cor­rec­tive mea­sures to avoid de­lays in do­mes­tic de­vel­op­ment and pro­duc­tion of de­fence equip­ment. Stream­lin­ing the De­fence Pro­cure­ment Pro­ce­dure (DPP) will be a vi­tal step in leapfrog­ging tech­nol­ogy through joint ven­tures and trans­fer of tech­nol­ogy. The FICCI-SP Guide Pub­li­ca­tions sem­i­nar com­prised three ses­sions; one each on ‘Bat­tle­field Mi­lieu at the Cut­ting Edge’, ‘En­abling Net­work Cen­tric Tech­nolo­gies’ and ‘In­for­ma­tion As­sur­ance: Vul­ner­a­bil­i­ties and So­lu­tions’. The cul­mi­na­tion was a CEOs’ Panel Dis­cus­sion promi­nently rep­re­sented by se­nior ex­ec­u­tives/board mem­bers of De­fence & Aero­space, L&T Heavy En­gi­neer­ing, FICCI De­fence Com­mit­tee and Sub-Com­mit­tee on In­dian De­fence SME, Tata Power SED, Pre­ci­sion Elec­tron­ics Ltd and Rhode & Sch­warz In­dia Pvt Ltd.

Ses­sion I had pre­sen­ta­tions on: Tech­ni­cal Con­straints at the Cut­ting Edge; Elec­tro­mag­netic Pulse (EMP) – New Era War­fare; Con­verged Com­mu­ni­ca­tions for BMS, and; Role of Pri­vate In­dus­try in the TBA. Pre­sen­ta­tion by DRDO rep­re­sen­ta­tive cov­ered the chal­lenges in de­vel­op­ing SDRs, cog­ni­tive ra­dios, satel­lite ter­mi­nals and space-based sen­sors. The pre­sen­ta­tion on EMP cov­ered threats, chal­lenges and pro­tec­tive mea­sures. The EMP threat is one of a few po­ten­tially cat­a­strophic threats. Though mea­sures are ex­pen­sive, by tak­ing ac­tion, the EMP threat can be re­duced to man­age­able lev­els. A na­tional strat­egy needs to be evolved to ad­dress the EMP threat and to bal­ance preven­tion, prepa­ra­tion, pro­tec­tion, and re­cov­ery.

The hall­mark of the pre­sen­ta­tion of the Con­verged Com­mu­ni­ca­tions for BMS was the in­no­va­tions re­quired at the in­dige­nous end for ‘Make In­dia’, com­pris­ing: in­te­grat­ing the plat­form, both for the ve­hi­cle and the sol­dier; multi-blade, multi-com­po­nent chas­sis host­ing ser­vices; form fac­tors PCI/PC104/oth­ers for the end points; mall form fac­tor com­put­ers at the bat­tal­ion and company HQs for the tac­ti­cal com­pute, wide area ap­pli­ca­tion ser­vices, AAA/ISE, SRE to host in­dige­nous se­cu­rity ser­vices; wear­able com­puter as the plat­form to host soft­ware com­po­nents (Router, IPICS, Jab­ber, Se­cu­rity/ VPN; adap­tive (Tac­ti­cal) pro­to­cols in­te­gra­tion; ruggedi­s­a­tion; in­te­gra­tion of OEM/for­eign plat­forms with C3I ap­pli­ca­tion (open in­ter­faces pro­vided OEM/for­eign ven­dor); se­cu­rity and hard­en­ing, and; Lever­ag­ing soft­ware to in­di­genise and con­trol the net­work. Pre­sen­ta­tion on the role of In­dian in­dus­try in the TBA cov­ered char­ac­ter­is­tics of TBA in­clud­ing fifth-gen­er­a­tion war, com­mu­ni­ca­tions in the TBA as well as ar­eas of en­gage­ment in the TBA. Is­sues elab­o­rated were in­dus­try de­vel­op­ment of TCS, BMS, com­bat net ra­dios, SDRs, mo­bile ad hoc net­work, cel­lu­lar tech­nol­ogy, Tetra, rugged net­work and com­put­ing, and GIS.

Ses­sion II had pre­sen­ta­tions on: Com­press­ing the OODA Loop, Blue Force Track­ing & Sit­u­a­tional Aware­ness, BMS as edge of Counter Ter­ror­ism, Tac­ti­cal Light­weight GIS, and Sol­dier Ap­pli­ca­tions. The pre­sen­ta­tion on com­press­ing the OODA loop was com­pre­hen­sively made by the ADG IS of In­dian Army. The pre­sen­ta­tion on blue force track­ing (BFT) & sit­u­a­tional aware­ness (SA) cov­ered the re­quire­ments for BFT, SA func­tion­al­ity, data flow for both, sen­sor in­puts, chal­lenges in ac­qui­si­tion, fu­sion, com­mu­ni­ca­tions and con­sump­tion, fi­nally sur­mis­ing that BFT and SA is an in­te­grated so­lu­tion look­ing into: sen­sor in­te­gra­tion (pre-pro­cess­ing and net­work­ing); dis­trib­uted, het­ero­ge­neous and en­ergy ef­fi­cient data fu­sion en­gine; com­mu­ni­ca­tion so­lu­tion which un­der­stands BFT & SA re­quire­ments; “Com­mu­ni­ca­tion Mid­dle­ware” so­lu­tion to ef­fec­tively han­dle SA data, and; Tac­ti­cal GIS for real time and lo­cal al­go­rithm ex­e­cu­tion. The high­light of the ses­sion was the pre­sen­ta­tion on use of BMS by an Is­raeli De­fence Forces army veteran who also showed live video clips of con­flict sit­u­a­tions with Ha­mas ter­ror­ists dur­ing 2009 and 2014. This in­cluded iden­ti­fy­ing ter­ror­ists en­ter­ing tun­nels and ac­cu­rately tar­get­ing the open­ings of th­ese tun­nels. The pre­sen­ta­tion of the light weight GIS brought out that the weight of the GIS was re­duced by putting some func­tion­al­i­ties in the cloud. Of course the se­cu­rity of data in the cloud has been un­der de­bate for many years. As part of sol­dier ap­pli­ca­tions the rep­re­sen­ta­tive from Honey­well gave a pre­sen­ta­tion on en­hanc­ing sit­u­a­tional aware­ness. The in­ter­est­ing part was the Dead Reck­on­ing Mod­ule that can be used in case the GPS goes out of range. The Os­prey ter­mi­nal, its view­point ap­pli­ca­tion, screen­shot through the in­marsat satel­lite net­work was also ex­plained.

Ses­sion III pre­sen­ta­tions com­prised of: Crit­i­cal Info As­sur­ance Re­quire­ments in TBA: Cy­ber War­fare, and; Man­age­ment of the Elec­tro­mag­netic Bat­tlespace. There was con­sid­er­able in­ter­est with the im­por­tance and ap­pli­ca­tion cy­ber war­fare hav­ing gone up in re­cent years. The tax­on­omy of cy­ber at­tacks based on the di­men­sions of the at­tack vec­tor, at­tack tar­get, vul­ner­a­bil­i­ties and ex­ploits, and pos­si­bil­ity of a pay­load or ef­fect beyond it­self were dis­cussed along with steps re­quired for crit­i­cal in­fra­struc­ture in In­dia, and the im­pon­der­ables like: is cy­ber war­fare just a hype or is it a grave threat to the na­tional se­cu­rity; can cy­ber war­fare win a war on its own; what is the thresh­old after which an at­tack can be termed as a cy­ber war, and; what in­ter­na­tional treaties are avail­able to pro­tect In­dia against cy­ber war. The pre­sen­ta­tion on elec­tro­mag­netic bat­tlespace op­er­a­tions cov­ered di­men­sions and char­ac­ter­is­tics of the elec­tro­mag­netic

bat­tlespace, the prob­lems and so­lu­tions, sim­u­la­tion and its con­straints, con­cepts in vogue, and pro­ce­dures and tools for man­ag­ing the elec­tro­mag­netic bat­tlespace.

All in all, the sem­i­nar was an apt boost and well timed with the Make in In­dia con­cept tak­ing off, the panel dis­cus­sion by the CEOs fo­cus­ing on the nu­ances of it. For a digi­tised mil­i­tary, the is­sues that need to be ac­cel­er­ated are in­te­grat­ing the three ser­vices; de­vel­op­ment of common stan­dard pro­to­cols, common se­cu­rity al­go­rithm, common GIS etc whereas in­tra-army the BSS, CIDSS and BMS need to be given the push. We are also hor­ri­bly be­hind in terms of map­ping both by the Survey of In­dia and Mil­i­tary Survey. The thrust to­wards de­vel­op­ing com­pre­hen­sive joint ser­vices ‘Sys­tems of Sys­tems’ ap­proach must be spe­cific. A ded­i­cated de­fence band from the spec­trum is needed con­sid­er­ing the se­cu­rity re­quire­ments. The gov­ern­ment should ap­point a Chief of De­fence Staff (CDS) with full op­er­a­tional pow­ers with­out fur­ther de­lay. The po­lit­i­cal hi­er­ar­chy should make joint­ness a top pri­or­ity.

While the Prime Min­is­ter has called for a digi­tised mil­i­tary, the threats that In­dia faces re­quires a na­tional re­sponse. To this end, the se­cu­rity sec­tor per se, es­pe­cially the fight­ing el­e­ments, need to be fully digi­tised and in­te­grated. This would in­clude all the PMF and CAPF forces in­volved in counter-ter­ror­ism, counter-in­sur­gency and bor­der se­cu­rity, in ad­di­tion to the mil­i­tary. We need in­for­ma­tion dom­i­nance un­der th­ese cir­cum­stances at all lev­els of con­flict. We must have the abil­ity to not only see the en­emy well be­fore he sees us but take him out ear­li­est. In look­ing for op­ti­mis­ing tech­nol­ogy, we should be look­ing at build­ing ca­pac­i­ties like iden­ti­fy­ing in­fil­tra­tion through dense fo­liage by air and abil­ity to take out that threat through armed drones. Sim­i­lar abil­ity is needed for counter-ter­ror­ism which also threat­ens the back­yard of our bor­der se­cu­rity. Suc­cess in com- bat de­pends greatly upon fused, tai­lored in­tel­li­gence which is com­mu­ni­cated se­curely and rapidly. Speed is a crit­i­cal com­po­nent. The crit­i­cal el­e­ments of sen­sor grids and en­gage­ment grids are hosted by a high-qual­ity in­for­ma­tion back­plane. Th­ese are sup­ported by val­ueadding com­mand and con­trol pro­cesses many of which need to be au­to­mated to achieve speed. This in essence per­son­i­fies the es­sen­tial char­ac­ter­is­tics of a com­mand, con­trol, com­mu­ni­ca­tions, com­put­ers, in­for­ma­tion and in­tel­li­gence (C4I2) sys­tem. There­fore, there is a need for a tremen­dously flex­i­ble and ro­bust C4I2 ar­chi­tec­ture which func­tions as a process of or­gan­i­sa­tions, doc­trines and tech­nolo­gies. We need to pro­gres­sively de­velop fool­proof se­cu­rity at our bor­ders and com­pre­hen­sive se­cu­rity of all vul­ner­a­ble points and vul­ner­a­ble ar­eas against threats of all types. The chal­lenge is to har­ness the power of sen­sors, in­for­ma­tion pro­cess­ing and com­mu­ni­ca­tion tech­nolo­gies to de­velop con­cepts of op­er­a­tion and com­mand and con­trol ap­proaches that will en­sure com­pre­hen­sive all-round se­cu­rity in any given sit­u­a­tion or cir­cum­stance.

Steps should be taken to es­tab­lish net­work-cen­tric­ity at the na­tional as well as the mil­i­tary lev­els, tak­ing a holis­tic view and adopt­ing a top down ap­proach. At the na­tional level, we need to ac­cel­er­ate the es­tab­lish­ment of the NAT­GRID. The new gov­ern­ment had in­di­cated that it would be tak­ing a relook at the Na­tional Counter-Ter­ror­ism Cen­tre (NCTC). In­ci­dents like the Bur­d­wan blasts un­der­line the need for the NCTC with sub­sidiary State level Counter Ter­ror­ism Cen­tres (SCTCs) es­tab­lished in ‘all’ States of In­dia. All this is es­sen­tial to in­te­grate the se­cu­rity sec­tor with an ef­fec­tive com­mand, con­trol, com­mu­ni­ca­tions, com­put­ers, in­for­ma­tion and in­tel­li­gence, surveil­lance and re­con­nais­sance (C4I2SR) sys­tem in place to en­sure our na­tional in­ter­ests and se­cu­rity of the na­tion.

(From left to right) Jayant Baranwal, Ed­i­tor-in-Chief, SP Guide Pub­li­ca­tions wel­comes Lt Gen­eral Philip Cam­pose, Vice Chief of Army Staff; In­au­gu­ral ad­dress by Lt Gen­eral Philip Cam­pose, Vice Chief of Army Staff and In­dian In­dus­try Per­spec­tive by Dr Sun­deep Oberoi,

Global Head for Niche Tech­nol­ogy De­liv­ery Group, Tata Con­sul­tancy Ser­vices;

(Top, left to right) Lt Gen­eral Anil Chait (Retd), for­mer CISC; Lt Gen­eral J.S. Matharu, DGIS and U.K. Kalyana Ra­mudu, Vice Pres­i­dent, Larsen & Toubro (Above, left to right) Ma­jor Gen­eral R.P. Bhad­ran, ADGIS; Ragha­van Mu­ralid­ha­ran, CTO, Tata Power SED; and AVM Dev Ganesh (Retd),

Cus­tomer Business Man­ager (Space), Honey­well

(Top, left to right) Lt Gen­eral P.C. Ka­toch (Retd), for­mer DGIS; Bri­gadier S.C. Sharma (Retd), Di­rec­tor, Ax­isCades Aero­space and Tech­nolo­gies Ltd; and Colonel San­jeev Re­lia, Se­nior Re­search Fel­low, United Ser­vices In­sti­tu­tion of In­dia (Above, left to right) Ashok Kan­odia, Man­ag­ing Di­rec­tor, Pre­ci­sion Elec­tron­ics Ltd; Rahul Chaudhry,

CEO, Tata Power SED and Jayant Patil, Ex­ec­u­tive Vice Pres­i­dent De­fence & Aero­space, Larsen & Toubro Ltd

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