There is a need to fo­cus on ‘much more pro­duc­tiv­ity and com­pet­i­tive­ness of In­dian ship­yards, with much less cap­i­tal in­vest­ments on ship­build­ing in­fra­struc­ture’

In an ex­clu­sive in­ter­view with SPs Naval Forces, Rear Ad­mi­ral A.K. Sax­ena, Di­rec­tor Gen­eral of Naval De­sign, Sur­face Ship Group, fo­cussed on In­dian Navy striv­ing for in­dige­nous war­ship pro­duc­tion and strength­ing public pri­vate part­ner­ship

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SPs Naval Forces (SPs): Be­gin­ning from the times of de­sign­ing the first Le­an­der class frigate, the In­dian Navy’s De­sign Or­gan­i­sa­tion has clocked sev­eral stu­pen­dous suc­cesses in not just rolling out state-of-the-art sur­face ships de­signs but also en­sur­ing their top class con­struc­tion in­dige­nously. What was the strat­egy that led to suc­cess­ful con­struc­tion of the home-grown ship de­signs? Di­rec­tor Gen­eral Naval De­sign (SSG) (DGND-SSG): War­ship de­sign and con- struc­tion are one of the most com­plex en­gi­neer­ing ac­tiv­i­ties in­volv­ing ag­gre­ga­tion and in­te­gra­tion of mul­ti­tude of com­po­nents and sys­tems. Un­like other in­dus­tries like au­to­mo­bile or air­craft in­dus­try where a pro­to­type can first be de­vel­oped,

op­ti­mised and then repli­cated in large num­bers, war­ship build­ing in­volves smaller num­bers, con­cur­rent evo­lu­tion of de­sign, and man­age­ment of many un­cer­tain­ties that emerge dur­ing con­struc­tion pe­riod. De­spite these com­plex­i­ties, it was the wis­dom, vi­sion, con­fi­dence of the In­dian Navy (IN), backed fully by the Gov­ern­ment of In­dia and the de­fence public sec­tor ship­yards that en­abled the re­al­i­sa­tion of sel­f­re­liance in ship de­sign and con­struc­tion. De­ci­sion to go ahead with in­dige­nous ship de­sign and con­struc­tion was a bold act of faith on the part of IN. It re­flected the con­fi­dence the IN had in its de­sign­ers and the grow­ing ca­pa­bil­ity of In­dian ship­yards.

The In­dian Navy made a mod­est be­gin­ning in 1962 in the field of in­dige­nous war­ship de­sign and con­struc­tion with the es­tab­lish­ment of a de­sign cell in the Di­rec­torate of Naval Con­struc­tion (DNC) which later grew to be­come DNC’s Cen­tral De­sign Or­gan­i­sa­tion in 1965. Since then, the IN de­sign agency has steadily grown to pro­duce over 19 de­signs to which over 85 ships have been built. The Di­rec­torate of Naval De­sign (DND) has thus evolved into a cra­dle of ex­cel­lence in war­ship de­sign over the last five decades. IN also cel­e­brated golden ju­bilee last year to com­mem­o­rate 50 glo­ri­ous years of in­dige­nous war­ship de­sign. Presently, IN is first among the ser­vices in in­di­geni­sa­tion and takes great pride that as on date 100 per cent of its ships are be­ing sourced in­dige­nously.

In­dian Navy’s fo­cus at all lev­els for pro­gres­sive in­di­geni­sa­tion with sourc­ing of weapons and sen­sors and other crit­i­cal equip­ment through joint de­vel­op­ment and li­censed pro­duc­tion has borne good re­sults. From to­tally re­ly­ing on for­eign weapon and sen­sors fit, con­sid­er­able en­hance­ment in in­dige­nous con­tent is seen in the latest Kolkata class de­stroy­ers and Kamorta class corvettes.

DND has been play­ing the cen­tral role in con­fig­ur­ing its de­signs to in­te­grate ad­vanced weapons and sen­sors suites, in­cor­po­rate ad­vanced stealth fea­tures, and im­proved propul­sion tech­nol­ogy from steam to diesel to gas tur­bines. New con­cepts for en­hanced op­er­a­tor con­ve­nience through au­to­mated con­trol and mon­i­tor­ing sys­tems such as In­te­grated Plat­form Man­age­ment Sys­tem, In­te­grated Bridge Sys­tem, Ad­vanced Com­pos­ite Com­mu­ni­ca­tion Suite, Com­bat Man­age­ment Sys­tem and To­tal At­mos­phere Con­trol Sys­tem have been in­cor­po­rated in the ships to bring about a tech­no­log­i­cal trans­for­ma­tion in the equip­ment and sys­tem fit of in­dige­nous war­ship de­signs. Stealth has been a fo­cus area of de­sign with sig­nif­i­cant im­prove­ments made in Shiva­lik class de­signs with at­ten­tion to re­duc­tion of radar cross sec­tion, in­frared sig­na­ture and acous­tic sig­na­tures. In fu­ture these de­signs would be fur­ther im­proved upon.

One of the most im­por­tant strate­gies in build-up of the in­dige­nous war­ship de­sign is the hu­man re­source strength of DND (SSG). The DND has de­rived its strength from the in­sti­tu­tion­alised and sys­temic ca­pa­bil­i­ties built up over the years. These ca­pa­bil­i­ties have been sharp­ened by way of the rich and di­verse ex­pe­ri­ence of its of­fi­cers and draw­ing of­fice staff in ex­e­cu­tion of large num­ber of projects. The main chal­lenge how­ever is in skill-sets re­ten­tion, be­sides time and ef­fort re­quired in build­ing of the ca­pa­bil­i­ties with new per­son­nel join­ing the or­gan­i­sa­tion.

Con­tin­u­ous im­prove­ment in de­sign pro­ce­dures, tools and tech­nol­ogy over the years has en­abled the In­dian Navy ships to keep up with the rapid ad­vance­ments in naval ship tech­nol­ogy wit­nessed over the last two decades. Use of 3D CAD mod­el­ling, fi­nite el­e­ment struc­tural anal­y­sis, com­pu­ta­tional fluid dy­nam­ics, wind tun­nel test­ing, EMI/EMC test­ing, stealth sig­na­ture pre­dic­tion soft­ware, etc, have led to pro­gres­sive re­fine­ments in de­sign be­sides lead­ing to im­proved vis­ual ap­pre­ci­a­tion. The di­rec­torate is also set­ting up a vir­tual re­al­ity lab to en­able op­er­a­tor in­puts at early stage in de­sign.

DND has come a long way in its en­deav­our of de­sign and build­ing state-of-the-art sur­face war­ships since the Le­an­der class frigates. Not just in terms of sheer num­ber of ships de­signed in­dige­nously by the di­rec­torate, the ship de­signs have also been sig­nif­i­cantly up­graded in their ca­pa­bil­i­ties, fea­tures with in­cor­po­ra­tion of niche tech­nolo­gies. Con­sid­er­ing the im­pres­sive lin­eage, the na­tion had re­posed its trust on DND (SSG) and tasked it to de­sign one of In­dia’s most am­bi­tious and chal­leng­ing war­ships ever, the in­dige­nous air­craft car­rier.

SP’s: Un­til the re­cent times all of in­dige­nous war­ships con­struc­tion was through the sys­tem of nom­i­na­tion of the public sec­tor de­fence ship­yards. From the De­sign Bureau’s per­spec­tive how would you like to an­a­lyse the ex­pe­ri­ences of in­dige­nous ship­build­ing by the de­fence ship­yards over the past 50 years?

DGND-SSG: Till about mid­dle of last decade, de­fence ship­build­ing was mainly con­fined to four de­fence public sec­tor ship­yards. Or­ders on the de­fence ship­yards were gen­er­ally placed on nom­i­na­tion ba­sis con­sid­er­ing com­plex­ity and un­cer­tain­ties of com­plex war­ship build­ing projects. Con­cept/ba­sic de­sign for the ships were largely pro­vided by the In­dian Navy and the ship­yards were re­quired to un­der­take only de­tailed de­sign/pro­duc­tion draw­ings.

In­dian Navy’s ex­pe­ri­ence with the de­fence ship­yards has been very good as re­flected in re­al­i­sa­tion of large num­ber of in­dige­nous war­ships. Although, the de­fence ship­yards over the years have built up ca­pa­bil­ity to build war­ships, how­ever, with in­crease in naval ship­build­ing or­ders over the years, there is a re­quire­ment of pool­ing of re­sources and shar­ing of load with pri­vate ship­yards.

The ship­yard in­fra­struc­ture at the de­fence ship­yards has im­proved over the years. The crane ca­pac­i­ties have in­creased from 50 tonnes to al­most 300 tonnes in some yards, and the in­fra­struc­ture has been aug­mented with con­struc­tion of new slip­ways and dry docks. The con­struc­tion of mod­u­lar work­shops to al­low all weather work, with ac­cess avail­able for lift­ing fully out­fit­ted blocks to the slip­ways are ma­jor and crit­i­cal in­fra­struc­ture up­grades. Cre­ation of ad­di­tional wet basin with crit­i­cal berthing fa­cil­i­ties are also ex­pected to ease the past in­fra­struc­ture con­straints. Some of the de­fence ship­yards have also added ship-lift fa­cil­i­ties with dry berths to fa­cil­i­tate build­ing of ships.

Re­duc­tion in build pe­ri­ods of war­ships has been a chal­lenge. To achieve this, be­sides aug­men­ta­tion of the yard in­fra­struc­ture, the ship­build­ing pro­cesses in vogue are also be­ing trans­formed. The ar­eas that re­quire trans­for­ma­tion in this re­gard in­clude de­sign tools/data­base, or­gan­i­sa­tion, plan­ning/pro­duc­tion con­trol, sup­ply chain man­age­ment, process en­gi­neer­ing, hu­man re­source man­age­ment, work cul­ture, ven­dor de­vel­op­ment, etc.

One of the means to bring about the process en­gi­neer­ing change is to im­ple­ment in­te­grated con­struc­tion (IC) method­ol­ogy at our ship­yards. This method­ol­ogy, aims at achiev­ing higher ex­tent of pre-out­fit­ting at block stage, rather than at the post-launch stage, thereby af­ford­ing sig­nif­i­cant sav­ings on time­lines and man­hour costs. The ad­vance­ment of out­fit­ting to ear­lier stages can re­sult in these sav­ings be­cause of im­proved ac­cess for per­son­nel/ ma­te­rial han­dling equip­ment, im­proved work­ing con­di­tions, avoid­ing of bunch­ing of work. The im­ple­men­ta­tion of these prac­tices would also re­quire early se­lec­tion of equip­ment, change in pro­cure­ment prac­tices, and re­or­gan­i­sa­tion of the yards. In­dige­nous ship con­struc­tion is set to take a big step with Pro­ject 17A ships be­ing con­structed us­ing IC method­ol­ogy to re­duce build pe­ri­ods.

Mod­u­lar con­struc­tion refers to con­struc­tion of blocks at sev­eral lo­ca­tions with assem­bly in one yard. It can fa­cil­i­tate part­ner­ship be­tween ca­pac­ity con­strained ship­yards to col­lab­o­rate and op­ti­mally utilise ca­pac­ity avail­able in other ship­yards. The part­ner­ship for mod­u­lar con­struc­tion could be be­tween ‘public-public’ ship­yards or ‘public–pri­vate’ ship­yards in the coun­try, to de­rive mu­tual ben­e­fits. Mod­u­lar con­struc­tion would re­quire de­sign of struc­ture of the mod­u­lar blocks for sea or road trans­porta­tion, de­vel­op­ment of com­mon build and ac­cu­racy stan­dards, and to­tal qual­ity as­sess­ment/con­trol. In­fra­struc­ture aug­men­ta­tion such as avail­abil­ity of sea-go­ing barges with re­strain­ing ar­range­ments, go­liath cranes with ac­cess to sea for lift­ing blocks, and land trans­porters for move­ment to slip­way or close to build­ing block would also be re­quired.

Care­ful plan­ning holds the key to shorten build pe­ri­ods. Build strat­egy is crit­i­cal for suc­cess of ship­build­ing projects, and must also as­sess the risk which can lead to time and cost over­runs, with suit­able risk mit­i­ga­tion meth­ods. Pro­duc­tion com­mence­ment is to be planned with ad­e­quate gap af­ter con­tract to en­able or­der­ing of equip­ment and ma­tu­rity of the de­tailed de­sign. New tech­niques such as Earned Value Man­age­ment based as­sess­ment of phys­i­cal progress, re­cast­ing of S-curves based on trade wise as­sess­ment of man­power avail­abil­ity, es­pe­cially for out­fit­ting to suit IC also need to be im­ple­mented. Ca­pac­ity as­sess­ment and strat­egy to man-

The ship­yard in­fra­struc­ture at the de­fence ship­yards has im­proved over the years. The crane ca­pac­i­ties have in­creased from 50 tonnes to al­most 300 tonnes in some yards, and the in­fra­struc­ture has been aug­mented with con­struc­tion of new slip­ways and dry docks.

age ex­cess load­ing through out­sourc­ing or other means need to be fig­ured out in ad­vance so that no time is lost dur­ing pro­ject ex­e­cu­tion.

Notwith­stand­ing scope for im­prove­ment as out­lined above, it is a fact that in­dige­nous naval ship de­sign and con­struc­tion ca­pa­bil­i­ties are a re­mark­able suc­cess story in which de­fence ship­yards have played sig­nif­i­cant role, there­fore ca­pa­bil­i­ties cre­ated at de­fence ship­yards need to be nur­tured as a ‘na­tional re­source’.

SP’s: For the past decade or more the fo­cus has grad­u­ally shifted to en­gag­ing the pri­vate sec­tor also in key in­fra­struc­ture de­vel­op­ment for war­ship build­ing, as also in es­tab­lish­ing high-end tech­nol­ogy cen­tres of ex­cel­lence in pur­suit of gen­er­a­tional up­grade for the war­ship con­struc­tion within the coun­try. What is your per­spec­tive on the emerg­ing trends?

DGND-SSG: A typ­i­cal war­ship com­prises of ‘Float’, ‘Move’ and ‘Fight’ com­po­nents. The in­di­geni­sa­tion con­tent in ‘ Float’ is more than 90 per cent, in ‘Move’ is over 50 per cent and in ‘Fight’ is over 30 per cent. With most of the war­ships and sub­marines cur­rently be­ing built by way of ‘Make in In­dia’, the next en­hance­ment in in­di­geni­sa­tion lev­els be­ing fo­cused is on naval equip­ment. The ‘Move’ com­po­nent which in­cludes propul­sion and aux­il­iary ma­chin­ery is cur­rently largely as­sem­bled/li­cence pro­duced in In­dia. The ‘Fight’ com­po­nent which in­cludes weapons and sen­sors are largely im­ported, view niche tech­nolo­gies and low vol­umes in­volved. The ‘ Move’ and ‘ Fight’ equip­ment fit of war­ships are there­fore the fo­cus ar­eas for ‘Make in In­dia’ in fu­ture.

Mod­u­lar weapons and sen­sors with stan­dard phys­i­cal sys­tem and elec­tronic in­ter­face are key to the re­duc­tion of build pe­ri­ods. Mod­u­lar equip­ment are re­quired to be de­vel­oped to en­able easy pre-out­fit on new con­struc­tion ships and fa­cil­i­tate easy in­stal­la­tion and con­nec­tori­sa­tion of up­grades dur­ing the ser­vice life of ship. Mod­u­lar en­gi­neer­ing equip­ment are also be­ing man­u­fac­tured as seen in re­cent trends in pack­ag­ing of AC plants, air han­dling units, hy­draulic start­ing units for gas tur­bines, etc. With fo­cus on ‘Make in In­dia,’ there is a need to fac­tor re­quire­ment for mod­u­lar­ity dur­ing the ini­tial stages of the de­vel­op­ment of such in­dige­nous equip­ment.

Many ad­vanced navies are us­ing the con­cept of in­te­grated mast, wherein the whole mast is fab­ri­cated, out­fit­ted and tested on land-based test site, ef­fec­tively delink­ing the progress of en­gi­neer­ing work and readi­ness of weapons and sen­sors on­board. This con­cept can lead to sig­nif­i­cant re­duc­tion in build pe­ri­ods and also en­able im­proved per­for­mance of sen­sors, with greater de­gree of com­ple­tion of ship at de­liv­ery with re­spect to its bat­tle wor­thi­ness.

Many ad­vanced navies are de­sign­ing their ships with in­te­grated elec­tric propul­sion to meet both propul­sion and power gen­er­a­tion re­quire­ments. Elec­tric propul­sion also af­fords en­hanced flex­i­bil­ity in op­er­a­tion, low acous­tic sig­na­tures, lower main­te­nance cost (due to op­ti­mum load­ing of prime movers) and en­hanced flex­i­bil­ity in lo­ca­tion of the diesel al­ter­na­tors, etc. There may be a need to de­velop one of the pri­vate/public ship­yards to man­u­fac­ture the sys­tem com­po­nents in col­lab­o­ra­tion with a suit­able for­eign firm ex­pe­ri­enced in diesel-elec­tric propul­sion. To in­cen­tivise the ship­yard from a ‘ Make in In­dia’ per­spec­tive, the ship­yard could be des­ig­nated as sin­gle source for en­tire sys­tem sup­ply and in­te­gra­tion on board for a pe­riod of 10 years (for the de­vel­oped ca­pac­ity of the power plant).

SP’s: In the re­cent years, the In­dian Gov­ern­ment has made a de­par­ture from the es­tab­lished norms of nom­i­na­tion of only de­fence ship­yards for in­dige­nous con­struc­tion of the sur­face ship as per de­signs of the Di­rec­tor Gen­eral of Naval De­sign (Sur­face Ship Group). How do you view this de­vel­op­ment in the con­text of In­dian Navy’s as­pi­ra­tions for force level ac­cre­tion to aug­ment mar­itime ca­pa­bil­i­ties within the de­sired time­lines?

DGND-SSG: At the out­set, I would like to clar­ify that all ma­jor com­bat­ants presently be­ing de­signed by the DND are be­ing built ex­clu­sively in DPSU/PSU ship­yards. Ships be­ing built by pri­vate ship­yards are be­ing de­signed ei­ther by ship­yards them­selves or through their re­spec­tive de­sign col­lab­o­ra­tors. How­ever, with lim­ited ship­build­ing ca­pac­ity avail­able at DPSU/PSU ship­yards and con­sid­er­able spare ca­pac­ity with pri­vate ship­yards, the Min­istry of De­fence (MoD) has started look­ing at pri­vate ship­yards for naval ship­build­ing projects on com­pet­i­tive ba­sis.

While our ex­pe­ri­ence with pri­vate ship­yards re­gard­ing de­liv­ery of yard crafts has been good, they need to en­hance ca­pa­bil­ity to pro­duce larger and weapon in­ten­sive naval ships. It is an­tic­i­pated that the ac­tive par­tic­i­pa­tion of pri­vate ship­yards in naval ship­build­ing would bring in the spirit of healthy com­pe­ti­tion and more im­por­tantly faster pace of ship ac­qui­si­tion to meet the In­dian Navy re­quire­ments.

SP’s: From the de­sign­ers’ per­spec­tive how would you like to eval­u­ate the avail­able in­fra­struc­ture, tech­nol­ogy ab­sorp­tion ca­pa­bil­ity, ship­build­ing and an­cil­lary skill-sets avail­able with the lead­ing ship­yards in the pri­vate sec­tor?

DGND-SSG: With the in­crease in global trade and spurt in de­mand for com­mer­cial ships about a decade ago, sev­eral new ship­yards had de­vel­oped in In­dia to cap­i­talise on the ship­ping boom. The boom re­sulted in cre­ation of green field ship­yards with very good in­fra­struc­ture in pri­vate sec­tor ship­yards. Most of the or­ders to these ship­yards in their ini­tial phase were for com­mer­cial ships. The owner pro­vided the de­sign and some­times even the ma­te­rial to the ship­yards, leav­ing the yards to fo­cus ex­clu­sively on con­struc­tion and de­liv­ery. There­fore, in-house de­sign and R&D ca­pa­bil­i­ties were not fo­cused upon by most of the pri­vate ship­yards.

With the global re­ces­sion set­ting in 2009 and re­sul­tant down­turn in ship­ping in­dus­try, sev­eral com­mer­cial ship­build­ing or­ders were can­celled re­sult­ing in sub­stan­tial spare ca­pac­ity in In­dian pri­vate ship­yards. This had led to as­so­ci­ated fi­nan­cial prob­lems in the ship­yards as most of the ship­yards had in­vested heav­ily to­wards cre­ation or upgra­da­tion of their in­fra­struc­ture. As against the above-stated back­drop in com­mer­cial ship­build­ing, the naval and Coast Guard or­ders for ships have shown an in­creas­ing trend.

The ex­pe­ri­ence of the ship ac­qui­si­tions so far has in­di­cated that though pri­vate sec­tor ship­yards of­ten have spare in­fra­struc­ture ca­pac­ity as com­pared to DPSU ship­yards but lack ca­pa­bil­ity to build com­plex war­ships be­cause of their lack of ex­pe­ri­ence in naval ship­build­ing. DPSU ship­yards have been there­fore en­cour­aged to part­ner with other DPSU yards and pri­vate yards with spare ca­pac­i­ties to over­come their ca­pac­ity con­straints. The tran­si­tion wherein ca­pac­ity and ca­pa­bil­ity is avail­able in all yards may be­come a re­al­ity in due course, as many naval aux­il­iary craft or­ders have been bagged by pri­vate ship­yards.

The large cap­i­tal in­vest­ments made by the ship­yards put enor­mous strain on their fi­nances, with con­se­quent pres­sure on avail­abil­ity of work­ing cap­i­tal. With a suf­fi­cient or­der book (naval and com­mer­cial ships) the fi­nan­cial chal­lenges can be man­aged as ship­build­ing is es­sen­tially a game of vol­umes. There is a need to fo­cus on “much more pro­duc­tiv­ity and com­pet­i­tive­ness of In­dian ship­yards, with much less cap­i­tal in­vest­ments on ship­build­ing in­fra­struc­ture. It is im­per­a­tive that the cur­rent pe­riod of low or­der books for some pri­vate ship­yards could be utilised to max­imise pro­duc­tiv­ity through low cap­i­tal in­ten­sive but ex­tremely ef­fec­tive trans­for­ma­tion of work prac­tices to max­imise re­turns on ear­lier in­vest­ments.

The strength­en­ing of de­sign of­fices at pri­vate ship­yards re­quires pe­ri­odic upgra­da­tion of hu­man re­sources, de­sign tools and fo­cus on syn­er­gis­ing the 3D CAD mod­els to de­velop pro­duc­tion-friendly de­signs for en­hanced pro­duc­tiv­ity. The ca­pa­bil­i­ties of young de­sign­ers need to be en­hanced with spe­cial fo­cus in cur­ricu­lum on sys­tem in­te­gra­tion skills (with strength to an­a­lyse im­pact of their sys­tem de­sign on other sys­tems).

With ma­jor ship­build­ing yards in the coun­try both public and pri­vate im­prov­ing their ca­pac­ity and ca­pa­bil­ity pro­gres­sively, In­dian ship­build­ing in gen­eral and naval ship­build­ing in par­tic­u­lar will grad­u­ally de­velop to not only meet as­pi­ra­tions of the In­dian Navy, but also make the In­dian ship­build­ing in­dus­try a strong global player.

SP’s: In the over­all con­text of re­cent pro­nounce­ments on ‘Make in In­dia’ cam­paign how would you like to eval­u­ate the role and in­volve­ment of the pri­vate sec­tor ship­yards in these ven­tures?

DGND-SSG: Ship­build­ing and its growth in In­dia are vi­tal for In­dian econ­omy and na­tional se­cu­rity ob­jec­tives, be­cause of the con­sis­tent growth in sea trade and need to safe­guard strate­gic sea lanes. Be­ing a key man­u­fac­tur­ing sec­tor, growth of in­dige­nous ship and sub­ma­rine build­ing ca­pa­bil­i­ties and ca­pac­i­ties is not only crit­i­cal from na­tional se­cu­rity per­spec­tives, but also im­por­tant to pro­mote the Make in In­dia’ ini­tia­tive of the Gov­ern­ment of In­dia to achieve self-re­liance in man­u­fac­ture of de­fence equip­ment within the coun­try.

The com­plex na­ture and long con­struc­tion pe­ri­ods in­volved in ac­qui­si­tion of naval plat­forms re­quire de­tailed plan­ning with req­ui­site fund­ing sup­port spread over a num­ber of years. War­ships are in­ducted and de-in­ducted in the IN as per in­sti­tu­tion­alised plans such as Long Term In­te­grated Per­spec­tive Plan and Mar­itime Ca­pa­bil­ity Per­spec­tive Plan. Ad­di­tion­ally, in or­der to en­cour­age the In­dian in­dus­try to de­velop niche tech­nolo­gies within the coun­try, a ‘Tech­nol­ogy Road Map’ was also drawn up and a forecast re­quire­ment for naval equip­ment for next 15 years has also been out­lined.

A num­ber of pri­vate sec­tor ship­yards in In­dia have in­vested in world-class ship­build­ing in­fra­struc­ture and are fast gain­ing promi­nence in the field of ship­build­ing. These ship­yards have equip­ment of latest gen­er­a­tion, and some are equally mod­ern and ca­pa­ble than the ones avail­able in DPSU ship­yards. In or­der to re­duce build pe­riod of ships, it is im­per­a­tive that the par­tic­i­pa­tion of pri­vate and public ship­yards be en­cour­aged to op­ti­mally utilise their ca­pac­i­ties/ca­pa­bil­i­ties as a col­lec­tive body. The ‘Make in In­dia’ pro­gramme of the coun­try could be re­alised with an ex­haus­tive and ef­fec­tive public-pri­vate part­ner­ship.

SP’s: There is an im­por­tant seg­ment of the ship­build­ing In­dus­try, known as Mi­cro, Small and Medium En­ter­prises (MSMEs), ca­pa­ble of con­tribut­ing sig­nif­i­cantly to the public and pri­vate ship­yards ef­forts. How would like to eval­u­ate their role in war­ship build­ing?

DGND-SSG: Equip­ment in­di­geni­sa­tion is a key fo­cus area of the In­dian Navy and the rapid de­vel­op­ments in In­dian in­dus­trial sce­nario is be­ing lever­aged by the In­dian Navy to de­velop sys­tems and equip­ment to re­place the for­eign ori­gin items with in­dige­nously de­vel­oped ones. This helps in three ways re­duc­ing the for­eign cur­rency out­flow, re­duced lead time for pro­cure­ment and also avoids sit­u­a­tion of non-avail­abil­ity due to var­i­ous sanc­tions im­posed view po­lit­i­cal con­sid­er­a­tions. To­wards this end the Di­rec­torate of In­di­geni­sa­tion was setup in 2005, pri­mar­ily to achieve self-re­liance in main­tain­ing and sup­port­ing the Navy’s vi­tal as­sets through the in­dige­nous de­vel­op­ment route within the am­bit of in­tel­lec­tual prop­erty rights. The In­dian Navy has pre­pared a 15-year In­di­geni­sa­tion Plan, for the pe­riod cov­er­ing 2008-22, which is hosted on the web­site of the Con­fed­er­a­tion of In­dian In­dus­try.

The an­cil­lary in­dus­trial sup­port to ship­yards is cru­cial to timely ship­build­ing, as a num­ber of com­po­nents, ma­te­rial and equip­ment, vary­ing in size and com­plex­ity are re­quired for ship­build­ing. Close lo­ca­tion, sym­bi­otic re­la­tion­ship be­tween the yard and the an­cil­lary in­dus­try as in­dus­trial clus­ters is cru­cial to cut­ting cost and time. There­fore, it is im­por­tant to con­sider de­vel­op­ment of de­fence in­dus­trial parks as spe­cial eco­nomic zones (SEZs). Ded­i­cated ar­eas in SEZ could be ear­marked for an­cil­lary in­dus­try for main en­gine, gear­boxes, shaft­ing, pro­pel­lers, gen­er­a­tors, switch­boards, valves, pumps, etc.

With spe­cific ref­er­ence to ship con­struc­tion, a large num­ber of sub­con­trac­tors are in­volved with the ship­yards in ex­e­cut­ing ship con­struc­tion ac­tiv­i­ties. Ship­yards have also taken ini­tia­tives to de­velop their ven­dor base and ven­dor de­vel­op­ment for sup­ply of com­po­nents/ma­te­rial/equip­ment in ad­di­tion to ship con­struc­tion ac­tiv­i­ties is an area where sig­nif­i­cant work is be­ing un­der­taken by the DPSUs. A work­shop was re­cently or­gan­ised by the Mazagon Dock Lim­ited, Mum­bai, to ex­pand ven­dor base for war­ship build­ing and thus pro­vide im­pe­tus to ‘Make in In­dia’ move­ment, wherein ship­yards, the In­dian Navy and Coast Guard pre­sented their re­quire­ment, ven­dor reg­is­tra­tion pro­ce­dures and qual­ity as­sur­ance re­quire­ments to a num­ber of MSMEs that par­tic­i­pated.

PHO­TO­GRAPH: In­dian Navy

PHO­TO­GRAPH: In­dian Navy

Fourth LCU of Mk IV Pro­ject launched at GRSE

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