IN­TE­GRATED AIR AND MIS­SILE DE­FENCE - A TRUE GAME CHANGER

In­te­grated Air and Mis­sile de­fence (IAMd) is an es­sen­tial, con­tin­u­ous mis­sion in peace time, cri­sis and times of con­flict, which safe­guards and pro­tects ter­ri­tory, pop­u­la­tions and forces against any air and mis­sile threat and at­tack and con­trib­utes to det

SP's NavalForces - - FRONT PAGE - REAR AD­MI­RAL SUSHIL RAM­SAY (RETD)

IAMD is an es­sen­tial, con­tin­u­ous mis­sion in peace time, cri­sis and times of con­flict, which safe­guards and pro­tects ter­ri­tory, pop­u­la­tions and forces against any air and mis­sile threat and at­tack and con­trib­utes to de­ter­rence. Rear Ad­mi­ral Sushil Ram­say (Retd)

IN HIS PA­PEr “JoINt Force Linch­pin for In­te­grated Air and Mis­sile de­fence and Ac­cess Con­trol”, pub­lished on Jan­uary 1, 2016 for Na­tional de­fence univer­sity Press, John F. Mor­ton, cau­tions that com­pli­cat­ing the Com­bat­ant Com­man­ders’ cal­cu­lus are the ad­vanc­ing Anti-Ac­cess/ Area-de­nial (A2/Ad) ca­pa­bil­i­ties in the hands of po­ten­tial ad­ver­saries and rogue States that pose a ma­jor chal­lenge to the mar­itime do­main.

IAMD: Vi­sion 2020

dur­ing 2014 Qua­dren­nial de­fence re­view, counter-mea­sures against rapidly grow­ing A2/Ad chal­lenges were de­lib­er­ated ex­ten­sively and it was de­cided to up-scale the pri­or­ity on in­creas­ing over­all joint force ca­pa­bil­i­ties. In what the Pen­tagon char­ac­terises as the A2/AD en­vi­ron­ment, de­fence of­fi­cials are now con­cep­tu­al­iz­ing the high-end level of the war-fight­ing spec­trum around the In­te­grated Air and Mis­sile de­fence (IAMd) mis­sion. In de­cem­ber 2013, Gen­eral Martin dempsey, then Chair­man of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, re­leased his ‘Joint In­te­grated Air and Mis­sile de­fence: Vi­sion 2020’ that spoke of the need for IAMd to “be even more Joint—ad­vanc­ing in­ter-de­pen­dence and in­te­grat­ing new ca­pa­bil­i­ties.”

Joint IAMd de­scribes the IAMd en­vi­ron­ment as an ex­pand­ing bat­tle space re­quir­ing plans and op­er­a­tions that ranges across global, re­gional, trans-re­gional, and home­land do­mains. “the re­gional and in­ter­con­ti­nen­tal reach of bal­lis­tic mis­siles,” it con­tin­ues, “al­ters the strate­gic and op­er­a­tional de­ci­sion space.” IAMd forces in a spe­cific theatre can ex­tend to re­gional, tran­sre­gional, and home­land op­er­a­tions. As such, Com­bat­ant Com­man­der’s plans must al­low for co­or­di­na­tion and hands-off across com­bat­ant com­mand ar­eas of re­spon­si­bil­ity.

Since May 2013, the IAMd mis­sion has been brought un­der the um­brella of Mis­sile de­fence Agency (MdA). MdA is now the tech­ni­cal author­ity to steer all joint IAMd engi­neer­ing and in­te­gra­tion ef­forts, in­clud­ing defin­ing and con­trol­ling the in­ter­faces and the al­lo­ca­tion of IAMd tech­ni­cal re­quire­ments. Vice Ad­mi­ral James Syring, was the first Navy head of MDA. His ar­rival in 2012 co­in­cided with a time when the Aegis ship­based com­bat sys­tem came to be seen as a core el­e­ment of uS and part­ner na­tion ef­forts in bal­lis­tic mis­sile de­fence (BMd) in line with the Euro­pean Phased Adap­tive Ap­proach (EPAA), the uS ad­min­is­tra­tion’s mis­sile de­fence strat­egy for Europe.

The ap­point­ing naval flag of­fi­cers to JIAMDO re­flects that the foun­da­tional mar­itime IAMd en­ablers for ac­tive de­fence will be the sur­face Navy’s mod­ernised fleet of Aegis-equipped war­ships. Mo­bile, for­ward-

de­ployed Aegis cruis­ers and de­stroy­ers, var­i­ously up­graded Sys­tems, will serve as the Com­bat­ant Com­man­ders’ net-en­abling nodes for glob­ally in­te­grated joint force op­er­a­tions for ac­cess con­trol.

IAMD – A Game Changer

Cap­tain James Kilby, deputy for Bal­lis­tic Mis­sile de­fence, Aegis Com­bat Sys­tems wrote that the most com­plex vari­ant of in­te­grated fires is the emerg­ing Navy In­te­grated Fire Con­trol–Counter Air (NIFC-CA) ca­pa­bil­ity that dra­mat­i­cally ex­tends the sen­sor net to al­low for mis­sile en­gage­ments be­yond the radar hori­zon. NIFC-CA pro­vides in­te­grated fire con­trol for theatre air and anti-ship cruise mis­sile de­fence in the tac­ti­cal en­vi­ron­ment. the ca­pa­bil­ity greatly ex­pands the over-the-hori­zon air war­fare bat­tle space for sur­face com­bat­ants to en­able third-party tar­get­ing and use of smart mis­siles. If prop­erly em­ployed with the right tac­tics NIFC-CA, the SM-6 sur­face-to-air/space mis­sile, the E-2d Hawk­eye with the Co­op­er­a­tive En­gage­ment Ca­pa­bil­ity and 5th-gen­er­a­tion F-35 fighter air­craft will be IAMd Game Chang­ers.

Of­fice of the Chief of Naval Op­er­a­tion’s Sur­face War­fare di­rec­torate (N96) is work­ing to en­hance the util­ity of NIFC-CA. Among the con­cepts con­sid­ered is mak­ing the Base­line 9 ships less re­liant on as­sets of the Car­rier Strike Group by us­ing an or­ganic un­manned aerial ve­hi­cle with the nec­es­sary data links to pro­vide the track­ing and tar­get­ing in­for­ma­tion to the ship’s sys­tem as a way for­ward for Aegis in its IAMd role. the ini­tial NIFC-CA con­cept of op­er­a­tion is un­der stake­hold­ers’ re­view and will re­quire test­ing and re­fine­ment to de­liver the tac­tics, tech­niques and pro­ce­dures needed to ex­ploit new IAMd ca­pa­bil­i­ties.

to op­er­a­tionalise IAMd com­pli­ant sys­tems it will re­quire rel­e­vant op­er­a­tional vi­sion, a con­cept of op­er­a­tions, and up­dated tac­tics, tech­niques and pro­ce­dures and a cadre of ex­perts who un­der­stand the em­ploy­ment of joint and com­bined IAMd ca­pa­bil­i­ties against cur­rent and emerg­ing threats, to gain and main­tain air su­pe­ri­or­ity to de­fend as­sets at sea and ashore. the in­her­ent mo­bil­ity, flex­i­bil­ity for de­ploy­ment and re­spon­sive­ness of naval forces to con­duct IAMd has never been more rel­e­vant.

Aegis Weapon Sys­tem

the AEGIS Weapon Sys­tem (AWS) re­mains the world’s pre-em­i­nent Air de­fence sys­tem, which is be­ing fur­ther de­vel­oped to in­clude ad­vanced IAMd ca­pa­bil­i­ties. the uS Navy’s Sur­face Fleet com­prises thirty BMd ca­pa­ble Cruis­ers and de­stroy­ers. In ad­di­tion, there are sev­eral ships un­der­go­ing in­stal­la­tion and cer­ti­fi­ca­tion. The AWS has thus emerged as the finest and most ad­vanced IAMd naval com­bat sys­tem, as it en­sures in­ter­op­er­abil­ity, tech­ni­cal sup­port, lo­gis­tics, type com­man­der spon­sored SPY radar maintenance pro­gramme, re­place­ment of high fail­ure SPY parts, and a re­vival of the SM-2 Fleet Fir­ing Pro­gramme and above all, en­sur­ing op­er­a­tional avail­abil­ity of de­ployed ships to over 96 per cent.

AEGIS Base­line 9 has been suc­cess­fully de­vel­oped as the first true IAMD AEGIS Com­bat Sys­tem com­puter pro­gramme. un­like its il­lus­tri­ous pre­de­ces­sor, BMd com­puter pro­grammes which had ei­ther AAW or BMd, both func­tion­al­i­ties have now been in­cor­po­rated in Base­line 9 Com­bat Sys­tems com­puter pro­gramme. one of the key fea­tures of the Base­line 9 is the Multi-Mis­sion Sig­nal Pro­ces­sor, which al­lows op­er­a­tors to dy­nam­i­cally al­lo­cate radar re­sources in re­sponse to spe­cific threats. It is said that the most notable fea­ture of Base­line 9 is the abil­ity to con­duct “in­te­grated fires.”

NATO IAMD

It is re­ported that the Nether­lands de­fence Ma­te­rial or­gan­i­sa­tion and thales Ned­er­land have signed an agree­ment to mod­ify the four SMArt-L Early Warn­ing Ca­pa­bil­ity (EWC) search radars for in­stal­la­tion on board ‘de Zeven Provin­ciën’ class Air de­fence and Com­mand Fri­gates of the royal Nether­lands Navy to strengthen NAto’s Bal­lis­tic Mis­sile de­fence ar­chi­tec­ture. the SMArt-L EWC is cur­rently be­ing de­vel­oped by thales Nether­lands to pro­vide a for­mi­da­ble and flex­i­ble Long-range Air Sur­veil­lance and Bal­lis­tic Mis­sile de­fence Early Warn­ing ca­pa­bil­ity on board four Air de­fence and Com­mand Fri­gates. the SMArt-L EWC is be­ing per­ceived as the po­ten­tial NAto Mar­itime In­te­grated Air and Mis­sile de­fence sys­tem.

It is fur­ther learnt that along with Ger­many, den­mark and the united States, the Nether­lands is con­duct­ing an in depth sen­sor in­te­gra­tion study in which the qual­ity of ser­vices is de­fined in which the SMART-L EWC needs to com­ply with the lat­est in­te­grated fire con­trol mech­a­nisms like launch and en­gage on re­mote, for ex­am­ple in sup­port of SM-3 and other ef­fec­tors.

Ja­pan’s Multi-lay­ered BMD

on de­cem­ber 19, 2003, the Gov­ern­ment of Ja­pan enun­ci­ated pol­icy to in­tro­duce the multi-lay­ered de­fence sys­tem com­posed of Aegis BMd sys­tem and Pa­triot PAC-3. the tech­no­log­i­cal fea­si­bil­ity of BMd sys­tem was ver­i­fied through the re­sults of in­ter­cep­tion tests and var­i­ous per­for­mance eval­u­a­tions in uS as also through own sim­u­la­tion re­sults.

Ja­pan is giv­ing fur­ther con­sid­er­a­tion to ac­quir­ing the Aegis Ashore bal­lis­tic mis­sile de­fense sys­tem fol­low­ing the tests of North Korean in­ter­con­ti­nen­tal bal­lis­tic mis­siles. Ja­pan is ex­plor­ing ac­quir­ing the land-based Aegis Ashore sys­tem and could make a de­ci­sion on pur­chas­ing the ca­pa­bil­ity early this sum­mer in­clud­ing the in­tro­duc­tion of the new SM-3 Block IIA BMd – jointly de­vel­oped by Ja­pan and the uS.

Cur­rently, Ja­pan’s BMd ca­pa­bil­ity is based around its four Aegis-equipped Kongo class de­stroy­ers armed with older SM-3 for long-range in­ter­cep­tion of bal­lis­tic mis­siles and mo­bile Lock­heed Martin Pa­triot Ad­vanced Ca­pa­bil­ity-3 (PAC-3) in­ter­cep­tors for in­ter­cept­ing tar­gets at shorter ranges.

the ad­di­tion of Aegis Ashore to Ja­pan’s BMd net­work would not only ex­pand the num­ber of weapons Ja­pan could field against BMd threats but also ex­pand its air de­fense sen­sor net­work with the in­clu­sion of ad­di­tional AN/SPY-1d radars as part of the in­stal­la­tion.

Ja­pan is also plan­ning to in­clude a BMd ca­pa­bil­ity in its new de­stroyer-class and up­grade its two Atago class de­stroy­ers to in­clude a BMd ca­pa­bil­ity.

With AEGIS BMd and PAC-3 as­sets, Ja­pan has fielded a multi-lay­ered sys­tem that is ca­pa­ble of be­ing in­ter­op­er­a­ble with the uS sys­tem. Ja­pan’s C2BMC ( JAdGE) sys­tem in­te­grates Ja­panese BMd sen­sors and in­ter­cep­tors and is ca­pa­ble of ex­chang­ing in­for­ma­tion with uS mis­sile de­fences, in­clud­ing the for­ward-based X-band radar at Shariki and uS AEGIS BMd ships op­er­at­ing in the re­gion.

the IAMd naval com­bat sys­tem, there­fore emerges as best suited for joint and com­bined op­er­a­tions and with all vi­tal op­er­a­tional nu­ances prop­erly but­toned up, it is sure to emerge as a true Game Changer.

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