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My distant relative’s son is about 18 years old. He prefers to wear clothes like girls and his speech and behaviour resembles girls. I want to know about this problem.
Many men and women are psychologically dominated by sexual inversion, a persistence of the childhood tendency. Effeminate behaviour, speech, dress and sexual inclination proclaim this fact. Transvestism is the most obvious and complete example where men dress in women's clothes and vice versa. This is a type of psychological problem also called psychological sex.
My elder girl developed puberty at the age of thirteen years i.e. menstruation and development of breast, but my younger daughter who is now 14, still not showing any sign of puberty. I want to know the reason of delayed puberty and the features of puberty also.
Puberty may be precocious, occurring two or three years before the expected and recognised average or delayed perhaps five years after. If anatomically and clinically normal, most girls menstruate spontaneously by the age of eighteen or nineteen and these aberrations from the normal need cause no anxiety nor indicate any treatment, in spite of parental anxiety or attempted coercion. Like the climacteric, puberty has vague boundaries in time, whereas the menarche is a relatively sudden event.
Puberty is a slow process involving several years during which the secondary sexual characteristics develop to maturity and menstruation is established. The menarche or time of onset of menstruation varies with race and to some extent family but the average for most girls is from twelve to thirteen years of age. Features of puberty are development of secondary sexual characteristics, increase in breast size, development of external genitalia, axillary and pubic hair and enlargement of the internal genitalia resulting in menstruation. Various endocrine glands and hormones are responsible for the development of puberty.
My daughter is about 13 years old. She is susceptible to get infection very frequently. Which type of preventive measure she should take to avoid getting an infection early and repeatedly?
The prevention of infection depends on three concepts which may be inter-related. Elimination of the source of infection include the eradication of tuberculosis and brucellosis from cattle in many countries and the worldwide elimination of smallpox. The laboratory screening donated blood for syphilis and hepatitis- B virus has virtually eliminated the sources of infection. Prevention of transmission of infection, this may be accomplished by the isolation of infected patients (source isolation) and of those such as the immunosupperssed who are particularly susceptible to infection ( Protective isolation). Strict antisepsis in operating theatres and good nursing practices in wards are essential if transmission of infection is to be prevented. Hand washing is of paramount importance protection of susceptible persons, this involve the judicious use of prophylactic antibiotics and of active or passive immunization.
My mother is about 60 yrs old and suffering from severe osteoarthritis of knee joints. We have consulted an orthopedic surgeon. He adviced us knee replacement surgery or arthroplasty. I want to know about the asthroplasty and in which conditions arthroplasty is required.
Arthroplasty is an operation for construction of a new movable joint. It is not applicable to every joint. In practice it's use is almost to the shoulder, the elbow, the hip, the knee, certain joins in hand and the metatarso - phalangeal joints in the foot. The indications for arthroplasty are not well defined, for there is considerable diversity of opinion among different surgeons.
Broadly it has a use in conditions like advanced osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis with disabling pain especially in the shoulder, elbow, hip, hand and metatarso. Phalangeal joint, for the correction of certain types of deformity, quiescent tuberculous arthritis especially of the elbow or hip, certain ununited fractures of the neck of the femur. I am 40 yrs old working woman. One year back a swelling develop on my wrist. This swelling is not increasing in size but sometimes it becomes painful. I have consulted a doctor for this problem. He told me that this condition is called ganglia and it must be removed. I want your opinion.
Ganglia are localised, tense (but often painless) cystic swellings containing clear gelatinous fluid. The often communicate with and are always adjacent to a tendon sheath or the capsule of a joint. Their origin is uncertain but they are probably caused by leakage (and subsequent fibrous enapsulation) of synovial fluid through the capsule of a joint or tendon sheeth. They are sometimes predisposed to by injury.
Simple ganglia are most commonly found on the dorsum of the wrist and the foot. Occasionally minute ganglia develop on the flexor aspect of the fingers which although small, are exquisitely painful and tender. if they do not resolve spontaneously, they are excised or removed.