The Paris cli­mate change con­fer­ence


The Jakarta Post - SPEAK! - - News -

As Speak! goes to press in the last week of Novem­ber, peo­ple are start­ing to talk about the Paris Cli­mate Change Con­fer­ence, which is slated to be held in Paris, France, from Nov. 30 to Dec. 11.

Its fo­cus is one of the most im­por­tant is­sues fac­ing the world to­day: How to re­duce car­bon emis­sions, which make the Earth warmer, so as to save the planet from dra­matic en­vi­ron­men­tal up­heavals.

The Paris event will be the 21st ses­sion of the Con­fer­ence of Par­ties (COP 21) and the 11th ses­sion of the

Con­fer­ence of Par­ties to the Ky­oto Pro­to­col (CMP 11).

The ob­jec­tive of this con­fer­ence is to have a univer­sal agree­ment on how to man­age cli­mate change be­tween na­tions around the world. Long Story Short

The United Na­tions Frame­work Con­ven­tion on Cli­mate Change (UNFCCC), cre­ated dur­ing the Rio de Janeiro Earth Sum­mit in 1992, is a univer­sal con­ven­tion that fo­cuses on ac­knowl­edg­ing the ex­is­tence of cli­mate change, and en­cour­ages in­dus­tri­al­ized coun­tries to tackle the is­sue.

This was fol­lowed by the Ky­oto Pro­to­col in 1997, which re­quired 5-per­cent cuts in car­bon emis­sions world­wide by 2012.

While each de­vel­oped coun­try was re­duc­tions, the US (one of the world’s largest pol­luters) de­clined to rat­ify the pro­to­col.

Na­tions that failed to meet their tar­gets were not sanc­tioned, so the treaty failed to meet its ob­jec­tives.

How­ever, com­mit­ments to re­duce car­bon emis­sions have al­ready been made by some of the largest pol­luters: The Euro­pean Union will cut its emis­sions by 40 per­cent and the USA will cut its emis­sions by 26 per­cent.

At the COF21, peo­ple want the na­tions present to make a treaty poorer coun­tries, who are suf­fer­ing from global warm­ing, which has been cre­ated by richer coun­tries since the In­dus­trial Revo­lu­tion.

Lesser-de­vel­oped na­tions will also have to limit their emis­sions, too, while peo­ple also want richer coun­tries to com­mit to in­vest in the tech­nol­ogy needed to re­duce emis­sions. Why It Mat­ters

Th­ese an­nual con­fer­ences are the key to re­duc­ing emis­sions be­fore global warm­ing in­creases tem­per­a­tures around the planet by an av­er­age of 2 de­grees Cel­sius.Ac­cord­ing to the IPCC, global warm­ing of more than 2 de­grees will re­sult in a num­ber of ex­treme cli­mate con­se­quences.

Tem­per­a­tures have al­ready risen about 1.5 de­grees due to global warm­ing, so there’s not much time left.

Dur­ing the con­fer­ence in Copen­hagen 2009, coun­tries set a goal to limit the tem­per­a­ture in­crease to 2 de­grees by re­duc­ing green­house gas

This means that the world will need to re­duce the amount of car­bon emis­sions from be­tween 40 and 70 per­cent in the next 35 years.

Even more than that, ev­ery econ­omy in the world must be car­bon-neu­tral (mean­ing not making any emis­sions) by the end of the cen­tury.

Both are huge tasks, but es­sen­tial, since car­bon emis­sions drive global warm­ing, which af­fects ev­ery as­pect of life on Earth. Here are some of the po­ten­tial im­pacts: Sea lev­els can rise and in­un­date low­ly­ing ar­eas and is­lands (es­pe­cially de­vel­op­ing coun­tries), dis­plac­ing tens of mil­lions of peo­ple. With warmer tem­per­a­tures, veg­e­ta­tion pat­terns might also be al­tered across the globe. Rice, for ex­am­ple, grows be­tween a very nar­row range of tem­per­a­tures and pre­cip­i­ta­tion.What hap­pens when there’s no rain? Or if it’s too hot? Health risks to vul­ner­a­ble com­mu­ni­ties. In 2003, 20,000 deaths in Europe and 1,500 deaths in In­dia were caused by ex­treme deadly heat waves. Up­dates

Since we’re writ­ing this be­fore the con­fer­ence starts, we’re not sure what will hap­pen.We can tell you how na­tions are preparing, though.

In­done­sia has taken its own course by car­ry­ing out the In­done­sianNor­we­gian REDD+ (Re­duc­ing Emis­sions from De­for­esta­tion and For­est Degra­da­tion plus) ini­tia­tive, which con­trib­utes to the global so­lu­tion to cli­mate change.

Also, Susilo Bam­bang Yud­hoy­ono, when he was pres­i­dent, was com­mit­ted to re­duc­ing emis­sions by 26 per­cent by 2020.

His suc­ces­sor, Pres­i­dent Joko Wi­dodo, re­cently met with Canada’s new prime min­is­ter to en­cour­age Canada to strengthen its cli­mate com­mit­ments as In­done­sia has, aim­ing to re­duce In­done­sia’s green­house gas emis­sions by 41 per­cent by 2030 with in­ter­na­tional sup­port.

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