Eat­ing too much salty food could raise di­a­betes risk

Iran Daily - - Health -

Eat­ing too much salty food dra­mat­i­cally raises the risk of di­a­betes, warned new re­search.

A study of al­most 3,000 peo­ple found those who con­sumed the most salt were al­most twice as likely to de­velop di­a­betes, ex­press.co.uk wrote.

And the risk rose al­most four­fold for those ge­net­i­cally pre­dis­posed to the con­di­tion, ac­cord­ing to the re­search.

Just un­der half a tea­spoon (2.5g) ex­tra a day in­creased the risk of type 2 di­a­betes, the form linked to obe­sity, by 65 per­cent.

Par­tic­i­pants with the high­est con­sump­tion — one-anda-quar­ter tea­spoons or more — were 72 per­cent more likely to de­velop it than those with the low­est.

The risk of de­vel­op­ing LADA (La­tent Au­toim­mune Di­a­betes in Adults), a form of type 1 di­a­betes, was even greater, in­creas­ing 82 per­cent rise for each 2.5g con­sumed daily.

And it nearly quadru­pled for those who ate lots of salt and car­ried spe­cific gene mu­ta­tions.

Dr. Ba­hareh Ra­souli, of The In­sti­tute of En­vi­ron­men­tal Medicine at the Karolin­ska In­sti­tute in Swe­den, said, “We con­firm an as­so­ci­a­tion be­tween sodium in­take and type 2 di­a­betes.

“High sodium in­take may be a risk fac­tor for LADA, es­pe­cially in car­ri­ers of high risk HLA geno­types.”

Un­like type one di­a­betes, which usu­ally is di­ag­nosed in chil­dren, LADA is slow de­vel­op­ing and of­ten makes its first ap­pear­ance in adult­hood.

Vari­ants in HLA (hu­man leu­co­cyte anti­gen) genes have been shown to in­crease the risk of de­vel­op­ing di­a­betes.

Ra­souli added, “These find­ings may have im­por­tant im­pli­ca­tions in the pri­mary pre­ven­tion of di­a­betes with adult on­set.”

There are cur­rently around 4.5 mil­lion peo­ple in the UK who now have di­a­betes, with 90 per­cent of cases thought to be type 2.

But the con­di­tion can be very sig­nif­i­cantly im­proved through a sim­ple, healthy diet.

The Na­tional Health Ser­vice (NHS) ad­vises adults should eat no more than 6g of salt a day, about a tea­spoon, and chil­dren even less.

The re­search, pre­sented at the Euro­pean As­so­ci­a­tion for the Study of Di­a­betes in Por­tu­gal, is the strong­est yet to link di­a­betes with high salt con­sump­tion, which is known to be bad for health by in­creas­ing blood pres­sure.

Ra­souli and col­leagues, whose find­ings are also pub­lished in the jour­nal Di­a­betolo­gia, be­lieve sodium — which makes up 40 per­cent of salt — makes the body re­sis­tant to the glu­cose con­trol­ling hor­mone in­sulin.

So for ev­ery 2.5g of salt con­sumed, 1g is sodium. Pre­vi­ous re­search has sug­gested too much salt may in­crease the risk of de­vel­op­ing type 2 di­a­betes, pos­si­bly through a di­rect ef­fect on in­sulin re­sis­tance, and by caus­ing high blood pres­sure and obe­sity.

Ra­souli’s team set out to shed more light on the as­so­ci­a­tion by us­ing data from a Swedish pop­u­la­tion-based study of 355 pa­tients with LADA and 1,136 with type 2 di­a­betes and com­par­ing them to 1,379 healthy con­trols.

Di­etary in­take was recorded us­ing a food ques­tion­naire and used to cal­cu­late the daily con­sump­tion of calo­ries, nu­tri­ents and sodium.

The in­flu­ence of ge­net­ics on di­a­betes risk was also con­sid­ered, with pa­tients be­ing di­vided into ‘high risk or ‘other’ ac­cord­ing to their HLA geno­type.

The team also took into ac­count risk fac­tors in­clud­ing age, sex, body mass in­dex (BMI), smok­ing, phys­i­cal ac­tiv­ity, fam­ily his­tory of di­a­betes, al­co­hol and to­tal en­ergy and potas­sium in­take.

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