ﺁﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ؛ ﺻﻨﺎﻳﻊ ﻛﻮﭼﻚ ﺍﺯ ﺻﻨﺎﻳﻊ ﺑﺰﺭگ ﭘﻴﺸﻰ ﻣﻰﮔﻴﺮﻧﺪ

Sanat Newspaper - - ﺻﻨﻌﺖ6102 -

ﺻﻨﺎﻳﻊ ﻛﻮﭼﻚ ﺑﻪﻃــﻮﺭ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﻰ ﺑﻴﺶ ﺍﺯ ﻧﻴﻤﻰ ﺍﺯ ﻧﻴﺮﻭﻯ ﻛﺎﺭ ﺑﺨﺶ ﺧﺼﻮﺻﻰ ﻛﺸــﻮﺭﻫﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺳــﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺧــﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ، ﺍﻳﻦ ﺩﺭﺣﺎﻟﻰ ﺍﺳــﺖ ﻛــﻪ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﻛﻤﺘﺮ ﺍﺯ ﻳﻚ ﭼﻬــﺎﺭﻡ ﻛﻞ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻳﻰﻫﺎﻯ ﻣﻮﺳﺴــﺎﺕ ﺑﺎﺯﺭﮔﺎﻧــﻰ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭﺍﺧﺘﻴــﺎﺭ ﺩﺍﺭﻧــﺪ. ﺻﻨﺎﻳــﻊ ﻛﻮﭼﻚ ﺑﻪ ﺷــﺮﻛﺖﻫﺎ ﻭ ﻣﻮﺳﺴــﺎﺗﻰ ﮔﻔﺘﻪ ﻣﻰﺷــﻮﺩ ﻛﻪ ﻛﻤﺘﺮ ﺍﺯ 100 ﻛﺎﺭﻣﻨــﺪ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ. ﺍﮔﺮ ﭼﻪ ﺑﺨﺶ ﺑﺰﺭﮔﻰ ﺍﺯ ﺷــﺮﻛﺖﻫﺎﻯ ﻛﻮﭼﻚ ﺩﺭ ﺻﻨﺎﻳﻊ ﺧﺪﻣﺎﺗﻰ ﻭ ﺧﺮﺩﻩﻓﺮﻭﺷــﻰ ﻣﺘﻤﺮﻛﺰ ﻫﺴــﺘﻨﺪ، ﻭﻟﻰ ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﻰ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺷــﺮﻛﺖﻫﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺗﻤﺎﻣﻰ ﺻﻨﺎﻳﻊ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺭﺷــﺪ ﺣﻀﻮﺭ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻰ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ. ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﺳﻬﻢ، ﻧﻘﺶ ﻭ ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻛﺖ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺻﻨﺎﻳﻊ ﻛﻮﭼﻚ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﻛﺸﻮﺭﻫﺎ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻬﻢ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻭ ﺟﺎﻳﮕﺎﻩ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒﻰ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ. ﺑــﻪ ﻃﻮﺭ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﻰ 09ﺩﺭﺻﺪ ﺷــﺮﻛﺖﻫﺎﻯ ﻛﻮﭼﻚ ﻛﻤﺘﺮ ﺍﺯ 02ﻛﺎﺭﻣﻨﺪ ﺭﺍ ﺍﺳــﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻛﺮﺩﻩﺍﻧﺪ. ﺍﻳﻦ ﺷﺮﻛﺖﻫﺎ ﺑﻪﻃﻮﺭﻋﻤﺪﻩ ﻛﺎﺭﻣﻨﺪﻣﺤﻮﺭ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﻭ ﺍﺯ ﻧﻴﺮﻭﻫﺎﻯ ﻛﺎﺭ ﻣﺎﻫﺮ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻰﻛﻨﻨﺪ. ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻮﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻘﺎﻳﺴﻪ ﺑﺎ ﺻﻨﺎﻳﻊ ﺑﺰﺭگﺗﺮ ﺷﻐﻞﻫﺎﻯ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮﻯ ﺭﺍ ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﻣﻰﻛﻨﻨﺪ؛ ﺍﺯ 25 ﻣﻴﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﺷﺮﻛﺘﻰ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﺎﻻﺕ ﻣﺘﺤﺪﻩ ﻭﺟــﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ، ﺑــﻪ ﻃﻮﺭ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒــﻰ 99/7 ﺩﺭﺻــﺪ ﻛﻮﭼﻚ ﺗﻠﻘﻰ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﺩ. ﺷــﺮﻛﺖﻫﺎﻯ ﻛﻮﭼﻚ ﺩﻭ ﺳــﻮﻡ ﺗﺎ ﺳﻪ ﭼﻬﺎﺭﻡ ﺧﺎﻟﺺ ﻣﺸــﺎﻏﻞ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻗﺘﺼــﺎﺩ ﺍﻳﺎﻻﺕ ﻣﺘﺤﺪﻩ ﺷــﻜﻞ ﺩﺍﺩﻩﺍﻧﺪ. ﺑــﺎ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻭﺟــﻮﺩ، ﺩﻳﻮﻳﺪ ﺑﺮﺵ، ﺭﻳﻴﺲ ﺷــﺮﻛﺖ ﭘﮋﻭﻫﺸــﻰ ﺁﺭﻙ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳــﺎﻻﺕ ﻣﺘﺤﺪﻩ، ﺍﺫﻋﺎﻥ ﻣﻰﻛﻨﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺗﻮﺍﻧﺎﻳﻰ ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﻣﺸــﺎﻏﻞ، ﺑﻴﻦ ﺷــﺮﻛﺖﻫﺎﻳﻰ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺑﺨﺶ ﺧﺼﻮﺻــﻰ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺖ ﻣﻰﻛﻨﻨﺪ، ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﻳﻜﻨﻮﺍﺧﺖ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﻧﺸــﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ. ﭘﮋﻭﻫﺶﻫﺎﻯ ﺍﻭ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﻣﻰﺩﻫﺪ ﻛــﻪ ﺗﻨﻬﺎ 3ﺩﺭﺻﺪ ﺍﺯ ﺷــﺮﻛﺖﻫﺎﻯ ﻛﻮﭼﻚ 70 ﺩﺭﺻﺪ ﺧﺎﻟﺺ ﻣﺸــﺎﻏﻞ ﺟﺪﻳــﺪ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﻛــﺮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻛﺎﺭ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﺗﻤــﺎﻡ ﺑﺨﺶﻫﺎﻯ ﺻﻨﻌﺖ، ﻧﻪ ﻓﻘــﻂ ﺩﺭ ﺻﻨﺎﻳﻊ ﺭﻭﺯ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﺩﺍﺩﻩﺍﻧﺪ. ﺍﻭ ﺻﻨﺎﻳﻊ ﻛﻮﭼﻜﻰ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭﺻﺪﺩ ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﺷــﻐﻞ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﺭﺍ »ﻏﺰﺍﻝ« ﻣﻰﻧﺎﻣﺪ. ﺍﻳﻦ ﺷــﺮﻛﺖﻫﺎ ﺑﺎ ﺣﺪﺍﻗﻞ ﻧﺮﺥ 02ﺩﺭﺻﺪ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﻝ، ﺑﻪ ﻣﺪﺕ 4ﺳﺎﻝ ﻭ ﺩﺳــﺖ ﻛﻢ ﺑﺎ ﻓﺮﻭﺵ ﺳﺎﻻﻧﻪ 001ﻫﺰﺍﺭ ﺩﻻﺭ، ﺩﺭﺣﺎﻝ ﺭﺷﺪ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ. ﭘﮋﻭﻫﺶﻫﺎﻯ ﺍﻭ ﻣﻨﺠﺮ ﺑﻪ ﺷﻨﺎﺳﺎﻳﻰ »ﻣﻮﺵﻫﺎ« ﻧﻴﺰ ﺷــﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺷــﺮﻛﺖﻫﺎﻯ ﻛﻮﭼﻜﻰ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﻛﻪ ﻫﻴﭽﮕﺎﻩ ﺭﺷــﺪ ﭼﻨﺪﺍﻧﻰ ﻧﻜﺮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﻣﺸﺎﻏﻞ ﭼﻨﺪﺍﻧﻰ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﻧﻤﻰﻛﻨﻨﺪ. ﺑــﻪ ﮔﻔﺘﻪ ﺩﻳﻮﻳﺪ ﺑﺮﺵ، ﻧﻪ ﺗﻨﻬــﺎ ﺻﻨﺎﻳﻊ ﻛﻮﭼﻚ ﺩﺭ ﺧﻠﻖ ﻣﺸــﺎﻏﻞ ﭘﻴﺸــﺮﻭ ﻫﺴــﺘﻨﺪ ﺑﻠﻜﻪ ﺑﺎﺭ ﺁﻣﻮﺯﺵ ﻛﺎﺭﻛﻨﺎﻥ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺑــﺮ ﺩﻭﺵ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺍﺳــﺖ. ﻳﻜــﻰ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻄﺎﻟﻌﺎﺗﻰ ﻛﻪ ﺍﺩﺍﺭﻩ ﻛﺴــﺐ ﻭ ﻛﺎﺭﻫــﺎﻯ ﻛﻮﭼﻚ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ ﺍﻧﺠــﺎﻡ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻭﺍﻗﻌﻴﺖ ﺭﺍ ﻣﻄﺮﺡ ﻣﻰﻛﻨــﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺻﻨﺎﻳﻊ ﻛﻮﭼــﻚ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺭﺍﺋﻪ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪﻫﺎﻯ ﺁﻣﻮﺯﺷــﻰ ﻭ ﻓﺮﺻﺖﻫﺎﻯ ﭘﻴﺸﺮﻓﺖ ﻛﺎﺭﻛﻨﺎﻥ ﻧﻘﺶ ﺭﻫﺒﺮ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺮﻋﻬﺪﻩ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ. ﺩﺭ ﻣﻘﺎﻳﺴﻪ ﺑﺎ ﺻﻨﺎﻳﻊ ﺑﺰﺭﮔﺘﺮ، ﺻﻨﺎﻳﻊ ﻛﻮﭼﻚ ﺁﻣﻮﺯﺵﻫﺎﻯ ﻣﻬﺎﺭﺗﻰ ﮔﺴــﺘﺮﺩﻩﺗﺮﻯ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺩﺍﺩﻩﺍﻧــﺪ ﻭ ﻛﺎﺭﻛﻨﺎﻥ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺍﺯ ﻓﻮﺍﻳــﺪ ﺑﻴﺸــﺘﺮﻯ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺯﻣﻴﻨﻪ ﺑﻬﺮﻩﻣﻨﺪ ﻣﻰﺷــﻮﻧﺪ. ﺍﮔﺮﭼﻪ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪﻫﺎﻯ ﺁﻣﻮﺯﺷﻰ ﺷﺮﻛﺖﻫﺎﻯ ﻛﻮﭼﻚ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﻏﻴﺮﺭﺳﻤﻰ، ﺩﺭﻭﻥ ﺷــﺮﻛﺘﻰ ﻭ ﺿﻤﻦ ﺧﺪﻣﺖ ﺍﺳﺖ، ﺑﻪ ﻛﺎﺭﻛﻨﺎﻥ ﻣﻬﺎﺭﺕﻫﺎﻯ ﺍﺭﺯﺷﻤﻨﺪﻯ ﺭﺍ ﻣﻰﺁﻣﻮﺯﻧﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺍﺯ ﺷﻴﻮﻩ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻃﺎﺕ ﻣﻜﺘﻮﺏ ﺗﺎ ﺁﻣﻮﺯﺵ ﻛﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺭﺍ ﺷــﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﺩ. ﺻﻨﺎﻳﻊ ﻛﻮﭼﻚ ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ 51 ﺩﺭﺻــﺪ ﺗﻮﻟﻴــﺪ ﻧﺎﺧﺎﻟــﺺ ﺩﺍﺧﻠﻰ ﺑﺨﺶ ﺧﺼﻮﺻﻰ ﻛﺸــﻮﺭ ﺍﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ ﻭ 47 ﺩﺭﺻﺪ ﻓﺮﻭﺵ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻮﺳﺴــﺎﺕ ﺑﺎﺯﺭﮔﺎﻧﻰ ﺭﺍ ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻞ ﻣﻰﺩﻫﻨﺪ. ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻉ ﺷﻬﺮﻙﻫﺎﻯ ﺻﻨﻌﺘﻰ ﻛﻮﭼﻚ ﺍﻳﺎﻻﺕ ﻣﺘﺤﺪﻩ، ﺟــﺰﻭ ﺑﺰﺭﮔﺘﺮﻳﻦ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻫﺎﻯ ﺑــﺰﺭگ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﺑﻪﺷــﻤﺎﺭ ﻣﻰﺁﻳﺪ. ﺣﻤﺎﻳﺖﻫﺎﻳﻰ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻟﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﺯ ﺷــﺮﻛﺖﻫﺎﻯ ﻛﻮﭼﻚ ﻭ ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﺩ، ﺷــﺎﻣﻞ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪﻫﺎﻯ ﻣﺎﻟﻰ ﮔﺴــﺘﺮﺩﻩ، ﺧﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﻣﺸﺎﻭﺭﻩ ﺩﺭ ﺯﻣﻴﻨﻪﻫﺎﻯ ﮔﻮﻧﺎﮔﻮﻥ، ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪﻫﺎﻯ ﺁﻣﻮﺯﺵ ﺷــﻐﻠﻰ ﻭ ﺗﻀﻤﻴﻦ ﻭﺍﻡ ﺍﺳــﺖ. ﻋــﻼﻭﻩ ﺑﺮ ﺍﻳﻨﻬﺎ، ﺁﻣﻮﺯﺵ ﻓﻨــﻰ ﻭ ﺣﺮﻓﻪﺍﻯ ﻗﻮﻯ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻛﺸــﻮﺭ ﻣﻮﺟﺐ ﮔﺴــﺘﺮﺵ ﻭ ﻣﻮﻓﻘﻴﺖ ﺻﻨﺎﻳﻊ ﻛﻮﭼﻚ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳــﺖ. ﺩﺭ ﺁﻟﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﻴﺶ ﺍﺯ 99 ﺩﺭﺻﺪ ﺑﻨﮕﺎﻩﻫــﺎ )ﺍﺯ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺗﻌﺪﺍﺩ( ﺩﺭ ﻗﺎﻟﺐ ﻛﻮﭼﻚ ﻭ ﻣﺘﻮﺳــﻂ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴــﺖ ﻣﻰﻛﻨﻨﺪ ﻛﻪ 60 ﺩﺭﺻﺪ ﺍﺯ ﺍﺷــﺘﻐﺎﻝ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻛﺸــﻮﺭ ﻭ 47 ﺩﺭﺻﺪ ﺍﺯ ﺍﺭﺯﺵ ﺍﻓــﺰﻭﺩﻩ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺑﻪ ﺁﻧﻬــﺎ ﺍﺧﺘﺼﺎﺹ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ. ﺍﻳﻦ ﺑﻨﮕﺎﻩﻫﺎ ﺟــﺰﻭ ﻧﻮﺁﻭﺭﺗﺮﻳﻦ ﺑﻨﮕﺎﻩﻫﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺍﺭﻭﭘﺎ ﻫﺴــﺘﻨﺪ ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭﻯ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺩﻭﺭﻩ 2008-2010 ﻣﻴﻼﺩﻯ ﺣﺪﻭﺩ 54 ﺩﺭﺻﺪ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﻣﻮﻓﻖ ﺑﻪ ﺍﺭﺍﺋﻪ ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻻﺕ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺑﺎﺯﺍﺭ ﺷــﺪﻩﺍﻧﺪ. ﺍﻳــﻦ ﺑﻨﮕﺎﻩﻫﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺭﺍﺣﺘﻰ ﻧﻴــﺮﻭﻯ ﻛﺎﺭ ﻣﺎﻫﺮ ﻭ ﻓﺎﺭﻍﺍﻟﺘﺤﺼﻴﻼﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺟﺬﺏ ﻣﻰﻛﻨﻨﺪ ﻭ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺁﻣﻮﺯﺵﻫﺎﻯ ﻓﻨﻰ ﻭ ﺣﺮﻓﻪﺍﻯ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﻰﺩﻫﻨﺪ ﺑﻪ ﻧﺤﻮﻯ ﻛﻪ 89 ﺩﺭﺻﺪ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻣﻮﺯﺵﻫﺎﻯ ﻓﻨﻰ ﻭ ﺣﺮﻓﻪﺍﻯ ﻛﺸــﻮﺭ ﺍﺯﺳــﻮﻯ ﺑﻨﮕﺎﻩﻫﺎﻯ ﻛﻮﭼﻚ ﻭ ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﺍﺭﺍﺋﻪ ﻣﻰﺷــﻮﺩ. ﺻﻨﺎﻳﻊ ﻛﻮﭼﻚ، ﻣﺮﺍﻛﺰ ﺭﺷﺪ ﺍﻳﺪﻩﻫﺎ، ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻻﺕ ﻭ ﺧﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﻫﺴــﺘﻨﺪ. ﺩﺭ ﻣﻘﺎﻳﺴﻪ ﺑﺎ ﺻﻨﺎﻳﻊ ﺑﺰﺭگ، ﺑﻪ ﺍﺯﺍﻯ ﻫﺮ ﻛﺎﺭﻣﻨﺪ ﭘﮋﻭﻫﺸــﻰ، ﺷــﺮﻛﺖﻫﺎﻯ ﻛﻮﭼــﻚ ﺩﺭ ﻋﻤﻞ 13 ﺗﺎ 41ﺑﺮﺍﺑﺮ ﻧﻮﺁﻭﺭﺗﺮ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ. ﺷــﺮﻛﺖﻫﺎﻯ ﻛﻮﭼﻚ ﻧﻘﺸﻰ ﺣﻴﺎﺗﻰ ﺩﺭ ﻧﻮﺁﻭﺭﻯ ﺑﺮﻋﻬﺪﻩ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﻭ ﺗﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻣﺮﻭﺯ ﻧﻴﺰ ﻫﻤﻴﻦ ﺭﻭﻧﺪ ﺭﺍ ﺍﺩﺍﻣﻪ ﺩﺍﺩﻩﺍﻧﺪ. ﺭﻳﺸــﻪ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭﻯ ﺍﺯ ﺍﺑﺪﺍﻋﺎﺕ ﻣﻬﻢ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺩﺭ ﻛﺎﺭﺁﻓﺮﻳﻨﺎﻥ ﺟﺴــﺖﻭﺟﻮ ﻛﺮﺩ ﻛﻪ ﺷــﺎﻣﻞ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺯﻳﭗ، ﺭﺍﺩﻳﻮ، ﻟﻴــﺰﺭ، ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ، ﺁﺳﺎﻧﺴﻮﺭ، ﻻﻣﭗ، ﺭﺍﻳﺎﻧﻪ ﺷﺨﺼﻰ ﻭ ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩﻫﺎﻯ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﺍﺗﻮﻣﺎﺗﻴﻚ ...ﻭ ﺍﺳﺖ.

Newspapers in Persian

Newspapers from Iran

© PressReader. All rights reserved.