U.S. -Turkey- Kurds …

De­vel­op­ment Co­op­er­a­tion Fu­ture

The Kurdish Globe - - NEWS - By Saadula Aqrawi STAFF WRIT­ERS

Since 2005, U.S.-Turkey-Kurds co­op­er­a­tion on is­sues af­fect­ing the Iraq, Mid­dle East has be­come closer, as Turkey agreed to host a U.S. radar as part of a NATO mis­sile de­fense sys­tem and the three sides have co­or­di­nated ef­forts in re­spond­ing to the on­go­ing con­flict in Syria.

The frag­men­ta­tion of the Kurds in the post-World War I era led to the rise of four dis­tinct Kur­dish groups, and this has contributed to the com­plex­ity of the Kur­dish sta­tus. The Kur­dish split was re­spon­si­ble for ini­ti­at­ing a se­ries of is­sues over­laid by a va­ri­ety of prob­lems and ques­tions.

This com­plex­ity has in­evitably af­fected US per­cep­tions of the Kur­dish Is­sue and is re­flected in the four dif­fer­ent US Kur­dish poli­cies cur­rently im­ple­mented. Sim­i­larly, the ex­is­tence of the var­i­ous Kur­dish groups, to­gether with the dif­fer­ing views that may pre­vail in each of the US bu­reau­cracy’s de­part­ments to­ward even the same Kur­dish group, help to ex­plain why the United States has so far con­tin­ued to hold frag­mented views, and thus poli­cies, to­wards the Kurds.

As the re­sult of Iraqi with­drawal from the north on ac­count of the ( no-fly) zone that pre­vented Iraqi air forces from op­er­at­ing above the 36th par­al­lel was an ac­ci­den­tal out­come of the US, Bri­tish, French and Turk­ish col­lec­tive hu­man­i­tar­ian plan to pro­tect Iraq’s Kur­dish pop­u­la­tion.

The US-backed UN Se­cu­rity Coun­cil Res­o­lu­tion 688 (5 April 1991) which called on Iraq to end the sup­pres­sion of its Kur­dish pop­u­la­tion, and Turkey’s sup­port for the cre­ation of the Safe Haven” in April 1991 did not only aim at avert­ing a se­cond refugee cri­sis (fol­low­ing the al-“An­fal cam­paign” of This very first stage of Turk­ish- Kur­dish re­la­tions, which came about as a re­sult of Turk­ish sup­port for the cre­ation of the KRG in the early 1990s with the de­ploy­ment of

100,000 troops along the Iraqi-Turk­ish bor­der and the ap­proval of the US’s plans to at­tack Sad­dam from Turkey’s In­cir­lik air base on 18 Jan­uary

The KRG has been to try­ing to create an en­vi­ron­ment con­ducive to in­vest­ment in or­der to at­tract for­eign in­vest­ment and create strong bi­lat­eral re­la­tions lead­ing to strength­en­ing mul­ti­lat­eral part­ner­ships with al­lies and neigh­bors that has been hos­tile to the Idea of Kur­dis­tan.

As more oil is dis­cov­ered, Kur­dis­tan re­gion now has the po­ten­tial to be­come an im­por­tant and re­li­able source of en­ergy for Turkey in par­tic­u­lar and to the global en­ergy mar­ket.

So far, this has been the gen­eral rule, with one no­table ex­cep­tion - US pol­icy to­wards the KRG. There, we find a sin­gle US Kur­dish pol­icy. This dif­fer­ent ap­proach was cre­ated by the Amer­i­cans' in­ter­est in cre­at­ing a sta­ble and united Iraq; to do so, forg­ing a close re­la­tion­ship with Iraq’s Kurds was a ne­ces­sity.

US–Kur­dish re­la­tions can ei­ther progress or regress in re­la­tion to the con­nec­tions be­tween the United States and the re­gional states, or even run par­al­lel to them.

Be­cause Amer­ica has changed, the Mid­dle East is chang­ing and Iraq is grad­u­ally re­cov­er­ing. Sooner or later, the Kurds will have to make a move to adapt to these changes and set a more solid and per­ma­nent foun­da­tion for its re­la­tion­ship with the USA.

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