Iraqi govern­ment hasn’t com­pen­sated An­fal fam­i­lies yet

The Kurdish Globe - - NEWS -

As the 26h an­niver­sary of the An­fal Oper­a­tion was com­mem­o­rated all across Kur­dis­tan Re­gion, a mem­ber of the Iraqi Coun­cil of Rep­re­sen­ta­tives says the Iraqi govern­ment has failed to com­pen­sate the fam­i­lies of the vic­tims yet.

In Cham­chamal, the an­niver­sary of An­fal was com­mem­o­rated by the lo­cal ad­min­is­tra­tion with the author­ity from the Min­istry of Mar­tyrs and An­fal of the Kur­dis­tan Re­gional Govern­ment.

Foad Os­man, of­fi­cial spokesper­son of the Min­istry, said that this cer­e­mony is a na­tional cer­e­mony and ev­ery­body has to com­mem­o­rate this day and pay trib­ute to the vic­tims of An­fal.

“This year the Min­istry gave the author­ity to the lo­cal ad­min­is­tra­tions to make the ar­range­ments for the com­mem­o­ra­tion of this day.”

An­fal was an oper­a­tion lead by the Baathist Regime of Sad­dam Hus­sein aimed at the geno­cide of the Kurds.

The process started on April 14, 1988, and ended by tak­ing around 183 thou­sands of Kurds and bury them alive.

Fol­low­ing the col­lapse of the Baathist Regime, most of those who were in­volved in the oper­a­tion were put on trial and the Iraqi Par­lia­ment rec­og­nized the case as geno­cide.

Azad Sresh­mayee, mem­ber of the Iraqi Par­lia­ment on the Kur­dis­tani Al­liance Bloc, ar­gues that the cur­rent govern­ment of Iraq, which is a re­place­ment of the old one, has to com­pen­sate the fam­i­lies of the An­fal vic­tims, but the Iraqi govern­ment has not yet done that.

“Kur­dis­tan Re­gional Govern­ment has drafted a law and has handed it over to the Iraqi govern­ment, and asked for US$ 383 mil­lion to com­pen­sate the Kur­dish people in gen­eral, and the vic­tims in par­tic­u­lar,” MP Sresh­mayee told a lo­cal Kur­dish daily news­pa­per. “The Higher Crim­i­nal Court has made its de­ci­sion that this was a geno­cide and the Par­lia­ment also rec­og­nized it, but more has to be done about that.”

The Kur­dish MP also added that the Kur­dish and Iraqi gov­ern­ments have to try to make this case a global is­sue. “Some steps have been taken and some world par­lia­ments have rec­og­nized An­fal as geno­cide against the Kurds, but a lot more has to be done in this re­gard," con­cluded the PM Azad Ser­sh­mayee.


The word An­fal is a Qu­ran ter­mi­nol­ogy with an Ara­bic root, mean­ing (achieve­ment, yield), but ac­cord­ing to athe­ists the term is all the be­long­ings, an­i­mals, wealth and tools that Mus­lims take from their en­e­mies af­ter the wars.

The An­fal Op­er­a­tions of the Baathist Regime in the South­ern Kur­dis­tan went on in 8 con­sec­u­tive phases. Eight mil­i­tary units sup­ported by more than 600 air­planes and 1500 he­li­copters from the air force were in­volved in the oper­a­tion. The role of the Kurds 24 mil­i­tary de­tach­ments with 1154 Kurds from Er­bil, 5 de­tach­ments with 177 Kurds from Duhok and 26 de­tach­ments with 496 Kurds from Suleimaniya were in­volved in the im­ple­men­ta­tion of the oper­a­tion.

Ad­di­tion­ally a num­ber of Kur­dish men sup­ported the oper­a­tion act­ing as guides. They were a to­tal of 250 thou­sand people within 300-362 reg­i­ments un­der the name of Na­tional De­fense Forces.

The start of the oper­a­tion

The oper­a­tion started in Fe­bru­ary 23, 1988 in 8 stages and in 6 dif­fer­ent ar­eas of Kur­dis­tan. First stage was be­tween Fe­bru­ary 23 till March 18th in Doli Jafay­ati; sec­ond stage was from March 22 till April 1st in Qaradagh area; third stage was from April 7th till April 20th in Gar­main area; forth stage was from May 3rd till May 15th in Qalasewka and Smaller Zab area; fifth, sixth and sev­enth stages were from May 15th till au­gust 26th in Shaqlawa and Rawan­duz; and the eighth stage was from Au­gust 26th till Septem­ber 6th.

With the end of the eighth stage and the de­struc­tion of al­most all the vil­lages in Kur­dis­tan the of­fi­cial end of the oper­a­tion was an­nounced.

The dam­ages caused by An­fal

Al­most 90% of the Re­gion’s vil­lages and more than 20 towns and cities were erad­i­cated from the map. Around 15 mil­lion mines were planted in the ru­ral ar­eas. Roughly 1.5 mil­lion Kurds were re­lo­cated into force­ful camps. Ap­prox­i­maltey 10% of the Kur­dish pop­u­la­tion were wiped out. In to­tal around 7,729 sqm of Kur­dis­tan Re­gion faced the An­fal Oper­a­tion.

One of the most in­hu­mane as­pects of An­fal was that the Baathist regime was sell­ing the An­faled Kur­dish girls and women to other Arab coun­tries. In many oc­ca­sions Arab men en­tered into the jails and camps in groups and chose the beau­ti­ful girls and took them. In ad­di­tion to sell­ing these girls to the tribes, the Baathists started to force them to work in night clubs in cities in the Arab coun­tries. Ac­cord­ing to doc­u­ment num­ber 1606 of 1989, which is marked as “Con­fi­den­tial and top Ur­gent”, the Kirkuk Prov­ince In­tel­li­gence Direc­torate in­forms the Direc­torate Gen­eral of In­tel­li­gence on De­cem­ber 10, 1989 that based on a re­quest from Egypt, they are send­ing 18 An­faled Kur­dish girls to that coun­try.

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