Ro­ber­to Cre­ma­sco­li

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Ar­chi­tet­to, dal 1995 al 2000 la­vo­ra nel­lo stu­dio di Álvaro Siza (Opor­to) e João Luís Carrilho da Graça (Li­sbo­na). Nel 2001 con Edi­son Oku­mu­ra e Mar­ta Ro­dri­gues fon­da a Opor­to lo stu­dio Cre­ma­sco­li Oku­mu­ra Ro­dri­gues Ar­qui­tec­tos, rea­liz­zan­do ope­re in Por­to­gal­lo, Ita­lia, Sviz­ze­ra e Fran­cia e ag­giu­di­can­do­si con­cor­si pub­bli­ci. Cre­ma­sco­li è cu­ra­to­re di di­ver­se espo­si­zio­ni e dal 2007 è il di­ret­to­re ar­ti­sti­co del pro­get­to Re­ma­de in Por­tu­gal. An ar­chi­tect, from 1995 to 2000 he wor­ked in the stu­dios of Álvaro Siza and João Luís Carrilho da Graça. In 2001 he foun­ded the prac­ti­ce Cre­ma­sco­li Oku­mu­ra Ro­dri­gues Ar­qui­tec­tos in Por­to wi­th Edi­son Oku­mu­ra and Mar­ta Ro­dri­gues, de­si­gning buil­dings in Por­tu­gal, Ita­ly, Swi­tzer­land and Fran­ce. Cre­ma­sco­li has cu­ra­ted se­ve­ral ex­hi­bi­tions and sin­ce 2007 he has been the ar­ti­stic di­rec­tor of the Re­ma­de in Por­tu­gal pro­ject.

Li­sbo­na per l’Ex­po del 1998 scel­se que­sto ti­to­lo. Era ri­fe­ri­to agli ocea­ni, ma sin­te­tiz­za per­fet­ta­men­te la ca­pa­ci­tà di­mo­stra­ta dal­la cit­tà di fa­re te­so­ro dell’even­to per con­qui­sta­re un ruo­lo in­ter­na­zio­na­le, re­cu­pe­ra­re un ter­ri­to­rio de­gra­da­to e ri­lan­cia­re lo svi­lup­po ur­ba­no

This was the ti­tle cho­sen for Ex­po 98 in Li­sbon. It was a re­fe­ren­ce to the oceans, but to­day sums up per­fec­tly the ca­pa­ci­ty the ci­ty has sho­wn to gain from the event, win­ning itself an in­ter­na­tio­nal ro­le, and re­clai­ming de­gra­ded land as well as re­laun­ching ur­ban de­ve­lo­p­ment

Quan­do, in un po­me­rig­gio di feb­bra­io del 1995, Álvaro Siza mi chie­se di pre­pa­ra­re un mo­del­li­no ne­ces­sa­rio al­la pre­sen­ta­zio­ne di un pro­get­to nel­la mat­ti­na suc­ces­si­va, sen­tii uno scon­for­to im­prov­vi­so: ave­vo po­che ore per rea­liz­zar­lo e l’in­so­li­ta co­per­tu­ra dell’edi­fi­cio pro­po­sto, che co­sti­tui­va me­tà dell’area di pro­get­to, ri­chie­de­va una no­te­vo­le abi­li­tà ma­nua­le. Non sa­pe­vo che quel­la che sta­vo co­struen­do fos­se la mi­nia­tu­ra di ciò che sa­reb­be di­ven­ta­ta qual­che an­no do­po l’ico­na dell’in­ter­na­zio­na­liz­za­zio­ne di un Pae­se. Ma la sto­ria del pa­di­glio­ne del Por­to­gal­lo per Li­sbo­na Ex­po 98, l’ul­ti­ma espo­si­zio­ne uni­ver­sa­le del XX se­co­lo, non par­te cer­to da qui. Co­me in ogni na­sci­ta, an­che quell’even­to ha avu­to un pri­ma, un du­ran­te e un do­po. Una sto­ria che va­le la pe­na rac­con­ta­re per­ché l’edi­zio­ne di Li­sbo­na è uno di quei ra­ri ca­si do­ve il po­st Ex­po ha avu­to una na­tu­ra­le con­ti­nui­tà, tra­sfor­man­do­si in una pra­ti­ca di ge­stio­ne ter­ri­to­ria­le e di pro­gram­ma­zio­ne ur­ba­ni­sti­ca di suc­ces­so. L’Espo­si­zio­ne uni­ver­sa­le di Li­sbo­na fin dall’ini­zio fu pen­sa­ta dai suoi idea­to­ri co­me un’op­por­tu­ni­tà di bo­ni­fi­ca del ter­ri­to­rio per ri­qua­li­fi­ca­re una va­sta zo­na ai mar­gi­ni del­la cit­tà crean­do una nuo­va cen­tra­li­tà. When one af­ter­noon in Fe­brua­ry 1995 Álvaro Siza asked me to pre­pa­re a mo­del he nee­ded for the pre­sen­ta­tion of a pro­ject the next mor­ning, I al­mo­st lo­st heart: I on­ly had a few hours to ma­ke it and the unu­sual roof of the pro­po­sed buil­ding, whi­ch took up half the area of the pro­ject, re­qui­red con­si­de­ra­ble ma­nual dex­te­ri­ty. I didn’t know that what I was con­struc­ting was a mi­nia­tu­re ver­sion of the struc­tu­re that a few years la­ter would be­co­me an icon for the in­ter­na­tio­na­li­za­tion of a coun­try. But the sto­ry of the Por­tu­gue­se Pa­vi­lion for Ex­po Li­sbon 98, the la­st uni­ver­sal ex­po­si­tion of the 20th cen­tu­ry, cer­tain­ly did not start the­re. Li­ke any bir­th, that event had a be­fo­re, a du­ring and an af­ter. It’s a sto­ry that is wor­th tel­ling be­cau­se Li­sbon is one of tho­se ra­re ca­ses in whi­ch the po­st-Ex­po ex­pe­rien­ce has had a na­tu­ral con­ti­nui­ty, tur­ning in­to a suc­ces­sful exam­ple of re­gio­nal ma­na­ge­ment and ur­ban plan­ning.

Be­fo­re

Right from the ou­tset the Li­sbon Uni­ver­sal Ex­po­si­tion was seen by its plan­ners as an ppor­tu­ni­ty for re­cla­ma­tion of the ter­ri­to­ry th­rou­gh the re­de­ve­lo­p­ment of a va­st area on the ed­ges of the

Era il 1989 quan­do la com­mis­sio­ne che sta­va pre­pa­ran­do la com­me­mo­ra­zio­ne dei cin­que­cen­to an­ni del­le sco­per­te geo­gra­fi­che por­to­ghe­si (il viag­gio in In­dia di Va­sco da Ga­ma 1498) de­ci­se di sot­to­por­re al Bu­reau In­ter­na­tio­nal d’Ex­po­si­tions la can­di­da­tu­ra di Li­sbo­na per l’or­ga­niz­za­zio­ne dell’espo­si­zio­ne uni­ver­sa­le del 1998. Quat­tro an­ni do­po il pro­get­to por­to­ghe­se vin­se su quel­lo di To­ron­to con il te­ma Gli ocea­ni, un pa­tri­mo­nio per il fu­tu­ro. La zo­na est di Li­sbo­na lun­go il Ta­go, si­tua­ta tra le am­mi­ni­stra­zio­ni co­mu­na­li del­la ca­pi­ta­le e quel­la di Lou­res, fu l’area scel­ta per ospi­ta­re l’espo­si­zio­ne. Un fron­te flu­via­le di cir­ca 5 km si era tra­sfor­ma­to in di­sca­ri­ca a par­ti­re dal­la me­tà de­gli an­ni Cin­quan­ta, im­pe­den­do il col­le­ga­men­to del­le zo­ne ur­ba­ne edi­fi­ca­te ne­gli an­ni Qua­ran­ta al lun­go fiu­me. Il re­cin­to espo­si­ti­vo oc­cu­pa­va 50 et­ta­ri all’in­ter­no di una zo­na di in­ter­ven­to di 350. Cir­ca me­tà del­la co­stru­zio­ne fu adi­bi­ta a zo­na re­si­den­zia­le. Il pro­get­to fu fi­nan­zia­to con la ven­di­ta dei ter­re­ni, di pro­prie­tà sta­ta­le e sot­to la tu­te­la dell’am­mi­ni­stra­zio­ne del por­to di Li­sbo­na, a pro­mo­to­ri im­mo­bi­lia­ri at­tra­ver­so la crea­zio­ne di una so­cie­tà co­sti­tui­ta dal go­ver­no (Par­que Ex­po) con va­len­ze au­to­no­me ri­spet­to al­le am­mi­ni­stra­zio­ni co­mu­na­li di Li­sbo­na e Lou­res. ci­ty, crea­ting a new cen­tra­li­ty. It was 1989 when the com­mis­sion that was pre­pa­ring for the com­me­mo­ra­tion of fi­ve hun­dred years of Por­tu­gue­se geo­gra­phi­cal di­sco­ve­ries (com­men­cing wi­th Va­sco da Ga­ma’s voya­ge to In­dia in 1498) de­ci­ded to pro­po­se Li­sbon to the Bu­reau In­ter­na­tio­nal d’Ex­po­si­tions as a can­di­da­te for the or­ga­ni­za­tion of the world’s fair in 1998. Four years la­ter the Por­tu­gue­se pro­ject won out over To­ron­to’s wi­th the the­me The Oceans, a He­ri­ta­ge for the Fu­tu­re. The ea­stern zo­ne of Li­sbon on the banks of the Ta­gus, si­tua­ted bet­ween the mu­ni­ci­pa­li­ties of the ca­pi­tal and that of Lou­res, was the area cho­sen to ho­st the event. About 5 km of the ri­ver­front had been tur­ned in­to a rub­bi­sh tip sin­ce the midd­le of the 1950s, bloc­king the con­nec­tion of the ur­ban areas de­ve­lo­ped in the 1940s to the ri­ver­si­de. The ex­hi­bi­tion grounds oc­cu­pied 50 hec­ta­res wi­thin a zo­ne of in­ter­ven­tion of 350. Around half of the area to be built on was gi­ven over to hou­sing. The sche­me was fi­nan­ced by the sa­le of land ow­ned by the sta­te and un­der the con­trol of the port au­tho­ri­ty of Li­sbon to pro­per­ty de­ve­lo­pers th­rou­gh the set­ting up of a com­pa­ny by the go­vern­ment (Par­que Ex­po) wi­th au­to­no­mous po­wers wi­th re­spect to the mu­ni­ci­pal coun­cils of Li­sbon

Il con­cet­to di una nuo­va cen­tra­li­tà era coa­diu­va­to dal­la rea­liz­za­zio­ne di nuo­ve in­fra­strut­tu­re co­me li­nee fer­ro­via­rie, me­tro­po­li­ta­ne, e au­to­stra­de. In que­sto con­te­sto fu fon­da­men­ta­le lo­ca­liz­za­re nell’area la nuo­va sta­zio­ne dei tre­ni Ga­re do Orien­te (San­tia­go Ca­la­tra­va) e il pon­te Va­sco da Ga­ma (Mi­chel Vir­lo­geux, Ar­man­do Ri­to, Alain Mon­tois, Char­les La­vi­gne) sul fiu­me Ta­go, col­le­ga­men­to al mar­gi­ne sud, con la lun­ghez­za di 17 km. Ma­nuel Sal­ga­do, che ave­va fir­ma­to insieme a Vit­to­rio Gre­got­ti la rea­liz­za­zio­ne del Cen­tro Cul­tu­ra­le di Be­lem inau­gu­ra­to nel 1992, fu chia­ma­to a di­se­gna­re il pia­no dell’area Ex­po uti­liz­zan­do una ma­glia tri­di­men­sio­na­le di 7 me­tri cu­bi. Di que­sto si­ste­ma fa­ce­va­no par­te i pa­di­glio­ni tem­po­ra­nei e quel­li de­sti­na­ti a ri­ma­ne­re, co­me le due aree in­ter­na­zio­na­li, and Lou­res. The con­cept of a new cen­tra­li­ty was bac­ked by the crea­tion of new in­fra­struc­tu­res li­ke rail­way li­nes, un­der­ground li­nes and mo­tor­ways. Fun­da­men­tal in this con­text was the lo­ca­tion in the area of the new Ga­re do Orien­te rail­way sta­tion (San­tia­go Ca­la­tra­va) and the Va­sco da Ga­ma Brid­ge (Mi­chel Vir­lo­geux, Ar­man­do Ri­to, Alain Mon­tois, Char­les La­vi­gne) over the Ta­gus Ri­ver, pro­vi­ding a 17-km-long con­nec­tion to the sou­th bank. Ma­nuel Sal­ga­do, who had de­si­gned the Be­lem Cul­tu­ral Cen­tre, ope­ned in 1992, in col­la­bo­ra­tion wi­th Vit­to­rio Gre­got­ti, was cal­led on to draw up the plan for the Ex­po area, uti­li­zing a th­ree-di­men­sio­nal grid ba­sed on a mo­du­le of se­ven cu­bic me­tres. This sy­stem com­pri­sed the tem­po­ra­ry pa­vi­lions and the ones de­sti­ned to re­main, li­ke the two in­ter­na­tio­nal areas, the th­ree buil­dings

Il Pa­di­glio­ne Atlan­ti­co, tra­sfor­ma­to nel­la Meo Are­na.

The Atlan­tic Pa­vi­lion tra­sfor­med in­to the Meo Are­na.

Álvaro Siza, Pa­di­glio­ne del Por­to­gal­lo /

the Por­tu­gue­se Pa­vi­lion.

San­tia­go Ca­la­tra­va, Ga­re do Orien­te.

La fu­ni­via del Par­co del­le Na­zio­ni /

The Park of the Na­tions’ ca­bleway.

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