Le 21 nuo­ve scuo­le co­lom­bia­ne per l’in­fan­zia di El Equi­po de Maz­zan­ti. The 21 new Co­lom­bian kin­der­gar­tens de­si­gned by El Equi­po de Maz­zan­ti.

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Le 21 nuo­ve scuo­le co­lom­bia­ne per l’in­fan­zia pro­get­ta­te da El Equi­po de Maz­zan­ti so­no co­strui­te con bloc­chi pre­fab­bri­ca­ti che si pre­sta­no a in­fi­ni­te com­po­si­zio­ni. So­no na­ti co­sì com­ples­si sem­pre di­ver­si, le cui geo­me­trie ri­spon­do­no all’or­ga­niz­za­zio­ne di­dat­ti­ca ma an­che al­le sfi­de del cli­ma tro­pi­ca­le 21 new Co­lom­bian kin­der­gar­tens de­si­gned by El Equi­po de Maz­zan­ti are built out of pre­fa­bri­ca­ted blocks that can be ar­ran­ged in end­less ways. Out of this emer­ge com­ple­xes that are al­ways dif­fe­rent, and who­se geo­me­try mee­ts needs re­la­ting to the or­ga­ni­za­tion of tea­ching as well as the chal­len­ges of a tro­pi­cal cli­ma­te

El Equi­po de Maz­zan­ti, il rag­grup­pa­men­to ete­ro­ge­neo che a Bo­go­tá si muo­ve in­tor­no all’ar­chi­tet­to Gian­car­lo Maz­zan­ti, ha con­clu­so re­cen­te­men­te un pro­get­to esem­pla­re, da­to che ec­ce­de in ma­nie­ra si­gni­fi­ca­ti­va la sca­la, già no­te­vo­le, de­gli in­ter­ven­ti pub­bli­ci di que­sto au­to­re. Maz­zan­ti, in­fat­ti, è no­to da an­ni per aver fir­ma­to al­cu­ne del­le ope­re più si­gni­fi­ca­ti­ve del­la ri­na­sci­ta cul­tu­ra­le e so­cia­le del­la Co­lom­bia at­tua­le, spes­so in col­la­bo­ra­zio­ne con al­tri pro­fes­sio­ni­sti più gio­va­ni, agen­do quin­di co­me il mo­to­re al­la ba­se dell’af­fer­ma­zio­ne in­ter­na­zio­na­le di un’in­te­ra ge­ne­ra­zio­ne di pro­get­ti­sti. Lo sta­dio co­per­to per i Gio­chi Pa­na­me­ri­ca­ni, in­sie­me El Equi­po de Maz­zan­ti, the he­te­ro­ge­neous grou­ping that is ga­the­red around Gian­car­lo Maz­zan­ti in Bo­go­tá, has re­cen­tly con­clu­ded an exem­pla­ry pro­ject, so­me­thing they goes beyond the al­rea­dy no­ta­ble ran­ge of pu­blic in­ter­ven­tions by this ar­chi­tect. Maz­zan­ti, in fact, is well kno­wn for ha­ving de­si­gned so­me of the mo­st re­pre­sen­ta­ti­ve work lin­ked to the cul­tu­ral and so­cial re­nais­san­ce cur­ren­tly ta­king pla­ce in to­day’s Co­lom­bia, of­ten in col­la­bo­ra­tion wi­th other, youn­ger pro­fes­sio­nals, and has been a dri­ving for­ce be­hind the gro­wing in­ter­na­tio­nal re­pu­ta­tion for an en­ti­re ge­ne­ra­tion of ar­chi­tec­ts. The roo­fed sta­dium for the Pa­nA­me­ri­can Ga­mes, de­si­gned to­ge­ther wi­th Plan:B, La se­quen­za del­le au­le mo­du­la­ri pro­get­ta­te da Maz­zan­ti si adat­ta al­le for­me dei ter­re­ni di­spo­ni­bli, crean­do sem­pre una gran­de cor­te pa­vi­men­ta­ta, sul­la qua­le si af­fac­cia­no tut­ti gli ac­ces­si, pro­tet­ti da tet­to­ie leg­ge­re.

The se­quen­ce of the mo­du­lar clas­srooms de­si­gned by Maz­zan­ti adap­ts to the lie of the ground on the avai­la­ble si­tes, al­ways crea­ting a lar­ge pa­ved cour­tyard on­to whi­ch fa­ce all the en­tran­ces, pro­tec­ted by light ca­no­pies.

a Plan:B, e la bi­blio­te­ca del Par­que España a Me­del­lín, la gran­de tet­to­ia pub­bli­ca del­la Fo­re­sta del­la spe­ran­za nel quar­tie­re in­for­ma­le di Ca­zu­cá a Bo­go­tá o la scuo­la Pies De­scal­zos a Car­ta­ge­na de In­dias so­no di­ven­ta­ti luo­ghi im­me­dia­ta­men­te ri­co­no­sci­bi­li, con un’at­ti­tu­di­ne mo­ra­le che ri­co­no­sce al­la qua­li­tà dell’edi­li­zia pub­bli­ca un ruo­lo fon­da­men­ta­le per uno svi­lup­po so­cia­le equo. El Equi­po de Maz­zan­ti non è quin­di un ve­ro e pro­prio stu­dio di ar­chi­tet­tu­ra ma piut­to­sto una co­stel­la­zio­ne flui­da di esper­ti e col­la­bo­ra­to­ri, in gra­do di ge­sti­re pro­ces­si estre­ma­men­te com­ples­si do­ve si in­trec­cia­no po­li­ti­che pub­bli­che, fi­nan­zia­men­ti fi­lan­tro­pi­ci, co­me quel­li of­fer­ti dal­la and the li­bra­ry of the Par­que España in Me­del­lín, the great pu­blic ca­no­py of the Fo­re­st of Ho­pe in the in­for­mal set­tle­ment of Ca­zu­cá in Bo­go­tá and the Pies De­scal­zos school at Car­ta­ge­na ha­ve be­co­me im­me­dia­te­ly re­co­gni­za­ble pla­ces, re­flec­ting an ethi­cal ap­proa­ch that sees the qua­li­ty of pu­blic buil­ding as play­ing a fun­da­men­tal ro­le in equi­ta­ble so­cial de­ve­lo­p­ment. Thus El Equi­po de Maz­zan­ti is not an ar­chi­tec­tu­ral prac­ti­ce as su­ch but ra­ther a fluid con­stel­la­tion of ex­perts and col­la­bo­ra­tors able to hand­le ex­tre­me­ly com­plex pro­ces­ses in­vol­ving pu­blic po­li­cies, phi­lan­th­ro­pic fun­ding, su­ch as that of­fe­red by the foun­da­tion set up by the sin­ger

fon­da­zio­ne del­la can­tan­te Sha­ki­ra, Pies De­scal­zos ap­pun­to, e so­prat­tut­to stra­te­gie di par­te­ci­pa­zio­ne con i cit­ta­di­ni, in mo­do da po­ter ri­spon­de­re con mag­gior ef­fi­ca­cia al­le lo­ro esi­gen­ze. Il modello esplo­ra­to at­tra­ver­so que­ste pra­ti­che è mol­to at­ten­to a co­me l’ar­chi­tet­tu­ra pos­sa es­se­re co­mu­ni­ca­ta ai non spe­cia­li­sti e co­me i pro­get­ti­sti du­ran­te la fa­se di idea­zio­ne pos­sa­no im­pa­ra­re dal pub­bli­co, do­ve lo scam­bio di in­for­ma­zio­ni av­vie­ne at­tra­ver­so for­me di gio­co co­me quel­le pre­sen­ta­te nel­la mostra mo­no­gra­fi­ca We Play You Play, pres­so lo Spa­zio FMG di Mi­la­no nell’esta­te del 2017 o nell’in­stal­la­zio­ne Spea­king Ar­chi­tec­tu­re, par­te del­la Bien­na­le di Ar­chi­tet­tu­ra di Chi­ca­go del 2015. Una ana­lo­ga com­po­nen­te lu­di­ca, ac­com­pa­gna­ta da un prag­ma­ti­smo esem­pla­re, è al­la ba­se dell’ini­zia­ti­va per la co­stru­zio­ne di 21 asi­li nel­la re­gio­ne Atlán­ti­co, zo­na del Nord del Pae­se che si af­fac­cia sul Mar dai Ca­rai­bi. Gli asi­li, che si chia­ma­no in real­tà Cen­tros de De­sar­rol­lo In­fan­til si in­se­ri­sco­no all’in­ter­no di un pro­ces­so di spe­ri­men­ta­zio­ne di nuo­vi pa­ra­dig­mi pe­da­go­gi­ci per la pri­ma in­fan­zia, so­prat­tut­to per i quar­tie­ri più po­ve­ri. Ac­co­glie­ran­no ol­tre sei­mi­la bam­bi­ni, in ot­to mu­ni­ci­pi Sha­ki­ra, the afo­re­men­tio­ned Pies De­scal­zos, and abo­ve all stra­te­gies con­nec­ted to par­ti­ci­pa­tion wi­th the lo­cal peo­ple, in or­der to re­spond wi­th grea­ter ef­fec­ti­ve­ness to their needs. The mo­del ex­plo­red th­rou­gh the­se prac­ti­ces is at­ten­ti­ve to the pro­blems of com­mu­ni­ca­ting ar­chi­tec­tu­re to non-spe­cia­lists and to the fact that de­si­gners are able to learn from the pu­blic du­ring the pha­se of con­cep­tion, when the ex­chan­ge of in­for­ma­tion can ta­ke pla­ce th­rou­gh forms of play li­ke tho­se pre­sen­ted in the mo­no­gra­phic ex­hi­bi­tion We Play You Play sta­ged at the Spa­zio FMG in Mi­lan in the sum­mer of 2017 or in the in­stal­la­tion Spea­king Ar­chi­tec­tu­re at the Chi­ca­go Ar­chi­tec­tu­re Bien­nial in 2015. A si­mi­lar­ly play­ful aspect, ac­com­pa­nied by clear form of prag­ma­ti­sm, un­der­pins an ini­tia­ti­ve around the con­struc­tion of 21 nur­se­ry schools in the Atlán­ti­co re­gion, an area in the nor­th of the coun­try that fa­ces on­to the Ca­rib­bean Sea. The­se nur­se­ry schools, whi­ch are in fact cal­led Cen­tros de De­sar­rol­lo In­fan­til, are part of a pro­cess of ex­pe­ri­men­ta­tion wi­th new tea­ching prac­ti­ces for ear­ly chil­d­hood, espe­cial­ly in poo­rer nei­gh­bou­rhoods.

di­ver­si. La lo­gi­ca dell’as­sem­blag­gio di for­me e vo­lu­mi, quel­la dei gio­cat­to­li in­som­ma, con­trad­di­stin­gue l’aspet­to dei cen­tri. Ognu­no di que­sti è in­fat­ti com­po­sto da una se­quen­za di bloc­chi, co­me quel­li di le­gno con cui i bam­bi­ni gio­ca­no a co­strui­re, con­ti­gui uno all’al­tro e che si di­pa­na­no sul ter­re­no qua­si co­me fos­se­ro del­le col­la­ne, di so­li­to rac­chiu­den­do un gran­de cor­ti­le in­ter­no. L’equi­li­brio tra ele­men­ti sem­pre ugua­li e le va­ria­zio­ni pla­ni­me­tri­che di ogni asi­lo, che ri­spon­de al­le con­di­zio­ni oro­gra­fi­che, al­la for­ma e all’orien­ta­men­to dei lot­ti di­spo­ni­bi­li, al­le si­tua­zio­ni spe­ci­fi­che dei quar­tie­ri cir­co­stan­ti, è la ri­spo­sta con­cre­ta e astu­ta al­la ne­ces­si­tà di pro­dur­re ar­chi­tet­tu­ra in quan­ti­tà enor­mi. Una man­cia­ta di edi­fi­ci di pre­gio non so­no suf­fi­cien­ti per ov­via­re al­le ar­re­tra­tez­ze ac­cu­mu­la­te da de­cen­ni, è ne­ces­sa­rio pas­sa­re a una mo­le di in­ter­ven­ti in­fi­ni­ta­men­te più gran­de, la­vo­ran­do at­tra­ver­so eco­no­mie di sca­la e non so­la­men­te per­se­guen­do l’ec­cel­len­za dei sin­go­li pro­get­ti. Per rag­giun­ge­re que­sto obiet­ti­vo, la tec­ni­ca co­strut­ti­va dei sin­go­li bloc­chi è sta­ta stu­dia­ta e af­fi­na­ta at­tra­ver­so in­nu­me­re­vo­li pro­to­ti­pi: si trat­ta di sca­to­le com­po­ste di pan­nel­li pre­fab­bri­ca­ti d’ac­cia­io, tra­spor­ta­ti in si­to They will ta­ke in over six thou­sand chil­dren, in eight dif­fe­rent mu­ni­ci­pa­li­ties. The lo­gic of the as­sem­bla­ge of forms and vo­lu­mes (as is the ca­se wi­th toys) marks out the ap­pea­ran­ce of the­se cen­tres. Ea­ch of them is in fact ma­de up of a se­quen­ce of blocks, ju­st li­ke the woo­den ones wi­th whi­ch chil­dren play at buil­ding, con­nec­ting one ano­ther and laid out on the ground as if they we­re nec­kla­ces, and sur­roun­ding lar­ge in­ner cour­tyards. This ba­lan­ce bet­ween ele­men­ts that are iden­ti­cal and the va­ria­tions in plan of ea­ch nur­se­ry school, whi­ch re­flect to­po­gra­phic con­di­tions, the form and orien­ta­tion of the avai­la­ble plo­ts of land and spe­ci­fic si­tua­tions lin­ked to sur­roun­ding nei­gh­bou­rhoods, is a con­cre­te and in­tel­li­gent re­spon­se to the need to pro­du­ce lar­ge num­bers of buil­dings. A han­d­ful of pre­sti­gious struc­tu­res will not com­pen­sa­te for de­ca­des of de­lay. Lar­ge-sca­le in­ter­ven­tions are re­qui­red, ex­ploi­ting eco­no­mies of sca­le. To at­tain this ob­jec­ti­ve, the tech­ni­que for the con­struc­tion of sin­gle blocks was stu­died and re­fi­ned th­rou­gh a se­ries of able pro­to­ty­pes. The bo­xes are ma­de of pre­fa­bri­ca­ted steel pa­nels, whi­ch are then trans­por­ted to the si­te whe­re they

do­ve so­no co­per­ti di ce­men­to get­ta­to in ope­ra e poi ri­ve­sti­ti di una guai­na im­per­mea­bi­liz­zan­te di si­li­co­ne e tas­sel­li di ce­ra­mi­ca vi­trea per fa­ci­li­ta­re la ma­nu­ten­zio­ne e la pu­li­zia. In pian­ta e in se­zio­ne, la for­ma di ogni mo­du­lo è quel­la di due tra­pe­zi iden­ti­ci, che si toc­ca­no sul­la ba­se mag­gio­re. Que­sta geo­me­tria per­met­te di ac­cop­pia­re e af­fian­ca­re con fa­ci­li­tà gli ele­men­ti, ai qua­li di vol­ta in vol­ta si ag­giun­go­no com­po­nen­ti ac­ces­so­ri, qua­li i ba­gni, con­te­nu­ti in cu­bi più sem­pli­ci, o gran­di tet­to­ie sot­to le qua­li si può cam­mi­na­re pro­tet­ti dal cli­ma, o so­le co­cen­te o piog­ge tor­ren­zia­li. A se­con­da de­gli ar­re­di in­ter­ni e del­le di­ver­se ag­gre­ga­zio­ni pos­si­bi­li, i bloc­chi pos­so­no ospi­ta­re sa­le ni­do, au­le, lo­ca­li per l’am­mi­ni­stra­zio­ne, pa­le­stre, cu­ci­ne e re­fet­to­ri. Ogni cen­tro of­fre ni­do per la pri­ma in­fan­zia, ot­to sa­le di asi­lo e ot­to sa­le di scuo­la ma­ter­na. In se­zio­ne, le sca­to­le so­no la di­mo­stra­zio­ne dell’astu­zia di Maz­zan­ti: l’in­cli­na­zio­ne del tet­to per­met­te di eva­cua­re con fa­ci­li­tà le ac­que pio­va­ne ma so­prat­tut­to, quan­do spec­chia­ta nel­la par­te are coa­ted wi­th con­cre­te. A wa­ter­proo­fing shea­th of si­li­co­ne and pie­ces of gla­zed ce­ra­mic are then ad­ded in or­der to fa­ci­li­ta­te main­te­nan­ce and clea­ning. In plan and in sec­tion, the form of ea­ch mo­du­le is that of two iden­ti­cal tra­pe­ziums, whi­ch tou­ch on the main ba­se. This geo­me­try al­lo­ws the ele­men­ts to be cou­pled and joi­ned to­ge­ther wi­th ea­se, and for ac­ces­so­ry com­po­nen­ts to be ad­ded whe­re nee­ded: ba­th­rooms, con­tai­ned in sim­pler cu­bes, or lar­ge ca­no­pies un­der whi­ch the chil­dren can walk pro­tec­ted from bla­zing sun or tor­ren­tial rain. De­pen­ding on in­ter­nal fit­tings and dif­fe­rent pos­si­ble ag­gre­ga­tions, the blocks can hou­se crè­ches, clas­srooms, ad­mi­ni­stra­ti­ve of­fi­ces, gyms, kit­chens and can­teens. Ea­ch cen­tre has a crè­che for the youn­ge­st chil­dren, eight nur­se­ry school rooms and eight rooms for slightly ol­der chil­dren. In sec­tion, the bo­xes are a de­mon­stra­tion of Maz­zan­ti’s ca­re­ful use of spa­ce and form: the slo­pe of the roof al­lo­ws rai­n­wa­ter to run off ea­si­ly, but abo­ve all,

in­fe­rio­re del vo­lu­me, ge­ne­ra un ag­get­to ge­ne­ro­so, che per­met­te che il pa­vi­men­to sia ele­va­to di 75 cen­ti­me­tri ri­spet­to al suo­lo: in que­sto mo­do il pe­ri­me­tro ester­no del­le “col­la­ne” di ogni asi­lo fun­zio­na co­me una bar­rie­ra con­tro l’ac­qua del­le al­lu­vio­ni che spes­so col­pi­sco­no la re­gio­ne. Gli spa­zi vuo­ti e le cir­co­la­zio­ni, rac­chiu­si all’in­ter­no del pe­ri­me­tro co­strui­to, so­no fon­da­men­ta­li per ge­ne­ra­re un am­bien­te edu­ca­ti­vo to­ta­le, do­ve l’apprendimento av­ven­ga non so­la­men­te nel­le au­le de­di­ca­te ma at­tra­ver­so il gio­co all’aper­to. Co­me in al­tri pro­get­ti di Maz­zan­ti, il cor­ti­le e al­cu­ni dei vo­lu­mi so­no di­spo­ni­bi­li per la vi­ta del quar­tie­re, in mo­do di po­ter ac­co­glie­re at­ti­vi­tà di­ver­se al di fuo­ri de­gli ora­ri sco­la­sti­ci. I 21 asi­li ap­pe­na ter­mi­na­ti di­mo­stra­no l’ef­fi­ca­cia e la ge­ne­ro­si­tà dell’idea, in gra­do di rea­liz­za­re mol­ti cen­tri a co­sti ri­dot­ti sen­za ca­de­re nel­la ri­pe­ti­ti­vi­tà: a que­sto pun­to, il pro­get­to me­ri­te­reb­be di es­se­re re­pli­ca­to fi­no all’esau­ri­men­to dei bi­so­gni ai qua­li ha ap­pe­na ini­zia­to a ri­spon­de­re. when mir­ro­red in the lo­wer part of the vo­lu­me, crea­tes a si­gni­fi­cant in­crea­se in si­ze, al­lo­wing the floor to be rai­sed 75 cen­ti­me­tres abo­ve the ground. In this way the ou­ter pe­ri­me­ter of the “nec­kla­ce” of ea­ch kin­der­gar­ten func­tions as a bar­rier again­st the floods that of­ten af­fect the re­gion. The emp­ty and cir­cu­la­tion spa­ces lo­ca­ted wi­thin the pe­ri­me­ter of the con­struc­tion are fun­da­men­tal to the crea­tion of a to­tal edu­ca­tio­nal set­ting, whe­re lear­ning ta­kes pla­ce not ju­st in the de­di­ca­ted clas­srooms but th­rou­gh play ou­tsi­de. As in Maz­zan­ti’s other pro­jec­ts, the cour­tyard and so­me of the vo­lu­mes are avai­la­ble for use by lo­cal re­si­den­ts, so that they are able to ho­st dif­fe­rent ac­ti­vi­ties ou­tsi­de of school hours. The 21 nur­se­ry schools ju­st com­ple­ted de­mon­stra­te the ef­fi­ca­cy and ge­ne­ro­si­ty of this ove­rall idea, whi­ch is ca­pa­ble of rea­li­zing ma­ny cen­tres at a re­du­ced co­st wi­thout re­pea­ting itself. At this point, this de­si­gn de­ser­ves to be re­pli­ca­ted un­til all the needs to whi­ch it has be­gun to re­spond are met

TXT_ FA­BRI­ZIO GALLANTI PHOTOS_ ALEJANDRO ARANGO

Gra­zie al cli­ma fa­vo­re­vo­le, gli am­bien­ti co­mu­ni e i cor­ri­doi so­no aper­ti, se­pa­ra­ti so­la­men­te da pro­fi­li me­tal­li­ci co­lo­ra­ti.

Thanks to the fa­vou­ra­ble cli­ma­te, the com­mon spa­ces and cor­ri­dors are open, se­pa­ra­ted on­ly by co­lou­red me­tal pro­fi­les.

Gli spa­zi aper­ti e al­cu­ne sa­le so­no di­spo­ni­bi­li per l’uso da par­te de­gli abi­tan­ti dei quar­tie­re, al di fuo­ri de­gli ora­ri sco­la­sti­ci. Gli uf­fi­ci am­mi­ni­stra­ti­vi so­no sem­pre col­lo­ca­ti in pros­si­mi­tà dell’in­gres­so, per con­trol­la­re en­tra­te e usci­te.

The open spa­ces and so­me rooms are avai­la­ble for use by lo­cal re­si­den­ts ou­tsi­de of school hours. The ad­mi­ni­stra­ti­ve of­fi­ces are al­ways lo­ca­ted near the en­tran­ce, so that they can mo­ni­tor en­try to and exit from the pre­mi­ses.

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