Who’s bet­ting on elec­tric ships

Hy­brid and elec­tric pro­pul­sion on board of ya­ch­ts

Superyacht - - WHAT’S ON - by An­drea Man­ci­ni

If af­ter an un­cer­tain be­gin­ning hy­brid and/or elec­tric pro­pul­sion in the au­to­mo­ti­ve world has now be­co­me a con­so­li­da­ted rea­li­ty, whi­ch is con­que­ring for ever lar­ger mar­ket seg­men­ts of the in­du­stry as years go by. When it co­mes to the yachting world we’re still ‘pio­nee­ring’. It is a kno­wn fact ho­we­ver that se­ve­ral shi­pyards be­gan to tread that pa­th se­ve­ral years ago; so­me­ti­mes wi­th great de­ter­mi­na­tion and so­me con­vic­tion and at ti­mes on­ly to fol­low the tren­dy “green” cour­se to whi­ch they’re un­de­nia­bly fond of. Up un­til now we can sa­fe­ly ad­mit, it has all boi­led do­wn to in­te­re­sting at­temp­ts, whi­ch ha­ve been li­mi­ted by a tech­no­lo­gy that needs to pro­gress fur­ther and a mar­ket whi­ch is still un­pre­pa­red. What’s mo­re the hi­gh costs in­vol­ved in adop­ting this kind of pro­pul­sion or po­wer hou­se as it we­re, whi­ch still of­fers lit­tle ca­pa­bi­li­ty to ef­fec­ti­ve­ly run elec­tri­cal po­wer ef­fi­cien­tly mo­re than the me­cha­ni­cal one, to­ge­ther wi­th the hi­gh costs of bat­te­ry banks and the con­si­de­ra­ble vo­lu­me of spa­ce and weight they ab­sorb ha­ve no doubt been a fur­ther li­mi­ting fac­tor to the de­ve­lo­p­ment of on board hy­brid / elec­tric sy­stems. All things con­si­de­red; the­re has been scar­ce in­for­ma­tion tech­no­lo­gy whi­ch seen from users’ view poin­ts, all too of­ten was trans­la­ted in ex­tra com­pli­ca­tions and not as a real ad­van­ta­ge. To­day, pro­ba­bly ti­me is ri­pe and may well gi­ve way to grea­ter un­der­stan­ding and dif­fu­sion of hy­brid and /or elec­tric po­wer hou­ses in yachting, if not el­se whe­re, but cer­tain­ly yes in lar­ge su­pe­rya­ch­ts. In­fact if from a pu­re­ly tech­ni­cal per­spec­ti­ve the­re are no li­mi­ts at ei­ther end of the ya­cht si­ze sca­le, but the ad­ded costs in­vol­ved in going for hy­brid and/or elec­tric pro­pul­sion are su­ch, whi­ch are not com­mea­su­ra­ble to en­gi­ne po­wer in­stal­led, they be­co­me too hea­vy to bear in pro­pr­tion and li­mit their use in smal­ler ya­ch­ts spe­cial­ly when ta­king in­to ac­count their ef­fec­ti­ve sea­so­nal use. Con­se­quen­tly the num­ber of shi­pyards pro­du­cing ve­ry lar­ge ya­ch­ts are bet­ting on the un­doub­ted ad­van­ta­ges that hy­brid and/or elec­tric pro­pul­sion of­fer po­ten­tial­ly spea­king as a way of re­newing their of­fer (see ta­ble 1). So­me of the ma­jor shi­pyards in fa­vour of elec­tric ships and their point of view can be seen in the fol­lo­wing pa­ges:

SAN­LO­REN­ZO YA­CHT (sour­ce­til­li An­to­nel­li, San­lo­ren­zo SPA)

“E Mo­tion”, for su­ch is the na­me of San­lo­ren­zo’s new ya­ch­ts whi­ch ap­plies to the shi­pyard’s en­ti­re ran­ge com­pri­sing bo­th the di­spla­cing steel built ya­ch­ts whi­ch will adopt a die­sel / elec­tric so­lu­tion whi­le the fa­st pla­ning GRP built ones will be po­we­red by hy­brid po­wer hou­ses.the ELEC­TRIC AND HY­BRID sy­stems can pro­du­ce pro­pul­si­ve ener­gy, as well as wha­te­ver el­se is nee­ded on board.

In de­tail: ❑ ELEC­TRIC Means the sy­stem by whi­ch the pro­pel­ler is ma­de to ro­ta­te via an elec­tric en­gi­ne ‘fue­led’ by gen. se­ts pas­sing ener­gy th­rou­gh to li­thium bat­te­ries or by a mix of the two ac­cor­din­gly. In the spe­ci­fics the die­sel /elec­tric sy­stem in­stal­led on board of San­lo­ren­zo ya­ch­ts is ma­de up of four gen. se­ts or mo­re wor­king at va­ria­ble speed or VSG (Va­ria­ble Speed Ge­ne­ra­tor) ac­cor­ding to the ya­cht si­ze and the per­for­man­ce re­que­sted. In this way tra­di­tio­nal gen.se­ts di­sap­pear.

De fac­to on board ge­ne­ra­tors re­pre­sent an elec­tri­ci­ty board/ po­wer hou­se from whi­ch di­ver­se si­zed ca­bles sup­ply ener­gy to elec­tri­cal­ly ope­ra­ted i PODS whi­ch hou­se the elec­tric en­gi­nes in­si­de their ca­sing di­rec­tly con­nec­ting to the pro­pel­lers. This trans­la­tes in­to a se­ries of ad­van­ta­ges in terms of de­ci­bels and li­mi­ted vi­bra­tion when con­ven­tio­nal dri­ve shaf­ts ha­ve been eli­mi­na­ted. In this way the new com­pact po­wer hou­se by com­pa­ri­son wi­th a con­ven­tio­nal en­gi­ne room can al­so be in­stal­led in a va­rie­ty of ade­qua­te pla­ces. For exam­ple, on the San­lo­ren­zo 500EXP E Mo­tion whi­ch will be built in the im­mi­nent fu­tu­re it will be pos­si­ble to view the en­gi­ne room by wal­king along an in­ter­nal pas­sa­geway wi­th tem­pe­red glass walls (“Art Gal­le­ry En­gi­ne Room”) on the way from the main li­ving area to the bea­ch club aft in the stern.

Fi­nal­ly li­thium ion bat­te­ries of dif­fe­rent si­zes will stock the ener­gy nee­ded ac­cor­din­gly so as to en­su­re ZEM ze­ro emis­sion mo­de when ly­ing to an an­chor, or when crui­sing at night or in ma­ri­ne parks.

HY­BRID ❑ Is the pro­pul­si­ve sy­stem whi­ch de­pends main­ly on die­sel en­gi­nes, whi­le the elec­tric ones de­li­ver ad­di­tio­nal po­wer when re­que­sted. This sy­stem lea­ves you free to choo­se the be­st so­lu­tion, or a mix: die­sel en­gi­nes and/ or elec­tric ones to rea­ch the ob­jec­ti­ve whi­ch can be se­ve­ral or one of se­ve­ral ob­jec­ti­ves: top speed, ma­xi­mum com­fort, or re­du­ced con­sump­tion. The hy­brid sy­stem in­stal­led on San­lo­ren­zo’s smal­ler uni­ts in GRP in fact de­ploys smal­ler less po­wer­ful die­sels than lar­ger clas­sic ones, whi­ch trans­la­tes in­to less fuel con­sump­tion when the ya­cht is tra­vel­ling at crui­sing speed. To rea­ch be­st per­for­man­ce the ‘au­xi­lia­ries’ are cal­led to per­form as well (gen. se­ts and bat­te­ries) wi­th the die­sels. Whi­le ju­st crui­sing slow the elec­tric en­gi­nes can be al­so ex­ploi­ted as gen. se­ts and/or to re­char­ge bat­te­ries.

TAN­KOA YA­CH­TS (sour­ce An­drea Pa­ro­di, Head of Tech­ni­cal De­part­ment Tan­koa Ya­ch­ts S.P.A.)

Tan­koa Ya­ch­ts is cur­ren­tly hand­ling the se­cond hy­brid ves­sel of the S500 se­ries, it is the S502 Elet­tra. This ya­cht’s hull is per­fect to ho­st a hy­brid sy­stem as she pos­ses­ses mu­ch re­du­ced drag to speeds up to 12 kno­ts. Among a va­rie­ty of so­lu­tions in terms of dri­ve uni­ts and hy­brids. Tan­koa’s choi­ce for Elet­tra fell on a so cal­led pa­ral­lel E-mo­tion sy­stem fi­ne tu­ned wi­th va­lua­ble in­put from Die­sel Cen­ter. We’re loo­king at a plant com­pri­sing a main die­sel en­gi­ne(mtu 8V400M54 895kw@1800 rpm ) and a ZF re­du­cer per­ma­nent ma­gnet syn­chro­nous elec­tric mo­tor of 300 KW. This tech­no­lo­gy means you can re­du­ce the leng­th of the elec­tric mo­tor, in­crea­sing the wid­th and the­re­by op­ti­mi­sing nee­ded spa­ce in the en­gi­ne room. An elec­tric/me­cha­ni­cal clut­ch di­scon­nec­ts the main en­gi­ne ac­cor­din­gly from the dri­ve unit. The elec­tric mo­tor can, ac­cor­ding to the choi­ces ma­de re­main inert, but pro­du­cing elec­tric ener­gy when drag­ged by the main en­gi­ne, ro­ta­tes the the pro­pel­ler wi­th the main en­gi­ne di­scon­nec­ted or sup­plies ad­ded po­wer as need be to fur­ther in­crea­se speed. Two va­ria­ble speed MASE gen. se­ts wi­th a ma­xi­mum out­put of 250 KW ea­ch pro­vi­de the ne­ces­sa­ry ener­gy. To stock ener­gy, li­thium /AKASOL) bat­te­ries ea­ch one equal to 24.4 KWH wi­th a peak of 150 KW and a no­mi­nal ten­sion of 661V are used whe­re the num­ber of bat­te­ries de­ter­mi­nes the ran­ge in terms of pro­pul­sion in ZEM mo­de as well as the du­ra­tion ex­pres­sed in hours and mi­nu­tes of the ti­me spent ly­ing to an an­chor wi­th gen. se­ts swit­ched off. The main unit de­fi­ned as DC BUS re­cei­ves and sup­plies elec­tric cur­rent to pe­ri­phe­ral uni­ts and to the ser­vi­ces’ mo­ther board. Sim­ply­fy­ing the con­cept: all the avai­la­ble ener­gy from the gen.se­ts, from the bat­te­ries, and from the elec­tric mo­tors en­ter the DCBUS and from he­re the ener­gy is di­stri­bu­ted ac­cor­din­gly. The po­wer ma­na­ge­ment Sy­stem, via PLC con­trols and mo­ni­tors the set pa­ra­me­ters of the flow. The flow bet­ween elec­tric mo­tors, bat­te­ries and gen.se­ts is DC exi­ting at 780V. At the ser­vi­ces con­trol pa­nel it is tran­sfor­med in tri­ple pha­se 380 V in AC. The in­te­gra­ted mo­ni­to­ring and con­trol sy­stem al­lo­ws you to se­lect dif­fe­rent mo­des of pro­pul­sion di­rec­tly from the helm con­trols sta­tion thanks to a tou­ch screen.tan­koa’s Die­sel Cen­ter pa­ral­lel hy­brid pro­pul­sion main fea­tu­re is ma­de up of the po­wer hou­se com­pri­sing the elec­tric mo­tor – re­du­cer, the con­fi­gu­ra­tion of whi­ch is me­cha­ni­cal and hi­ghly sim­pli­fied. The me­cha­nic elec­tric clut­ch en­ga­ges on­to the main en­gi­ne and di­scon­nec­ts on­ly in mo­des 1 and 2 or when in bat­te­ries on­ly mo­de.this means that in any ano­ma­lous si­tua­tion, whi­ch is ne­ver­the­less im­pro­ba­ble, the S502H be­co­mes a tra­di­tio­nal ya­cht pro­pel­led by the main die­sels in­stal­led. As men­tio­ned, pro­pul­sion mo­des can be se­lec­ted ac­cor­din­gly as fol­lo­ws:

1 - Die­sel – elec­tric mo­de 2 - Hy­brid mo­de 3 - Tra­di­tio­nal mo­de 4 - Boo­ster mo­de 5 - ZEM mo­de “ze­ro emis­sion” (on­ly elec­tric). Cur­rent and avai­la­ble pro­pul­sion mo­des ha­ve been de­tai­led in the fi­gu­res, wi­th the ex­cep­tion of the ZEM whi­ch fo­re­sees

the ex­ploi­ta­tion of bat­te­ry po­wer alo­ne. This one is in ab­so­lu­te terms the mo­st si­lent in terms of de­ci­bels and the mo­st eco­lo­gi­cal. Ma­xi­mum speed and ran­ge are de­pen­dant on the num­ber of bat­te­ries. In this ca­se the ow­ner has to de­ci­de how ma­ny and whe­re to pla­ce them ac­cor­ding to the tech­ni­cal spa­ces avai­la­ble. Eight bat­te­ries would al­low a gi­ven ya­cht to crui­se at 5 kno­ts for about two and a half hours or the sa­me num­ber of bat­te­ries would al­low the ya­cht to lie to an an­chor in a bay wi­th gen. se­ts swit­ched off for about eight hours.

ROS­SI­NA­VI (sour­ce Ga­brie­le Zuc­co­ni, Tech­ni­cal de­part­ment- Ros­si­na­vi)

Ros­si­na­vi has ta­ken on the elec­tric ship chal­len­ge in mo­re ways than one. We’re al­so buil­ding two die­sel-elec­tric uni­ts. In fact in bo­th of the­se ca­ses our clien­ts ha­ve op­ted (due to weight/ co­st/ spa­ce rea­sons) not to in­stall bat­te­ries ju­st to en­joy and gua­ran­tee few hours in ZEM, (ze­ro emis­sion mo­de)

The two uni­ts are the fol­lo­wing:

Con­struc­tion FR.032 “ENDEAVOUR 2”,al­rea­dy de­li­ve­red ❑ and equip­ped wi­th ‘fi­xed’ fre­quen­cy gen.se­ts and PODS.

Con­struc­tion FR.037 “POLARIS 2”, in con­struc­tion ❑ equip­ped wi­th va­ria­ble fre­quen­cy gen. se­ts and PODS wi­th trac­tor pro­pel­lers and fea­the­ring bla­des.

As is clear­ly vi­si­ble not­wi­th­stan­ding the fact that bo­th uni­ts ha­ve been in­stal­led wi­th a die­sel –elec­tric sy­stem, the sy­stems dif­fer from one ano­ther. In fact one of the great ad­van­ta­ges die­sel elec­tric so­lu­tions pos­sess, is in the mul­ti­ple pos­si­bi­li­ties they can of­fer. Mo­re espe­cial­ly to­day thanks to no­ta­ble im­pro­ve­men­ts and to the de­ve­lo­p­ment of the tech­no­lo­gy now avai­la­ble, In other words the ca­pa­ci­ty to use in­ver­ters and per­ma­nent ma­gnet syn­chro­nous ge­ne­ra­tors whi­ch are al­so curr­ren­tly lar­ge­ly ex­ploi­ted for trains on rails. As a me­re exam­ple let’s as­su­me a gi­ven ship re­qui­res 1000KW to work, the ener­gy re­qui­red can be en­tru­sted to a sin­gle gen. set ca­pa­ble of the sa­me out­put or to ten gen. se­ts wi­th an out­put of 100 KW ea­ch. Ho­we­ver it is wor­th no­ting that any in­ter­me­dia­te so­lu­tion is equal­ly pos­si­ble. The fac­tors de­ter­mi­ning the choi­ce are then in pro­por­tion to the po­wer nee­ded (for exam­ple when crui­sing as op­po­sed to full speed ahead), and al­so the po­wer re­qui­red by the ser­vi­ces or “ho­tel” ( mo­stly when ly­ing to an an­chor as the main en­gi­nes are “off”). At this point the choi­ce to be ma­de has to be ac­cor­ding to the re­qui­re­men­ts to be ful­fil­led whi­ch will de­ter­mi­ne the sy­stem’s cha­rac­te­ri­stics. For exam­ple the re­quests for con­struc­tion FR.032 “ENDEAVOUR 2, we­re the fol­lo­wing:

❑ A ship ca­pa­ble of crui­sing the world (no li­mi­ts – un­re­stric­ted)

❑ Top speed not less than 16 kno­ts;

❑ A re­com­men­ded crui­sing speed of 12 kno­ts at­tai­na­ble wi­th one main en­gi­ne lin­ked to two pro­pel­lers.

❑ Ma­xi­mum com­fort in terms of noi­se le­vels and vi­bra­tion.

❑ Ex­cel­lent in­te­gra­ted ma­noeu­vra­bi­li­ty gi­ven by dy­na­mic po­si­tio­ning.

❑ Elec­tric plan­ts (gen. se­ts, in­ver­ters, mo­tors, ECM fil­ters etc) re­no­w­ned for qua­li­ty and avai­la­bi­li­ty.

❑ Fle­xi­bi­li­ty and user friend­ly inu­ti­ti­ve PMS (Po­wer Ma­na­ge­ment Sy­sy­tem).

On the ba­sis of the­se re­qui­re­men­ts, the choi­ce went to a die­sel-elec­tric sy­stem equip­ped wi­th fi­ve gen. se­ts ( two main ones of 952 KWE ea­ch and th­ree au­xi­lia­ry ones wi­th an out­put of 82 KWE ea­ch) and two Rolls Roy­ce PODS wi­th coun­ter-ro­ta­ting pro­pel­lers to de­li­ver the re­que­sted ma­noeu­vra­bi­li­ty and dy­na­mic po­si­tio­ning wan­ted. The ya­cht can rea­ch a top speed ex­cee­ding 16 kno­ts wi­th bo­th main gen. se­ts at full ca­pa­ci­ty and one or two of the au­xi­lia­ries to ful­fil “ho­tel” re­qui­re­men­ts. A crui­sing speed (in ECO mo­de re­quests 600 KWE) of 11 – 12 kno­ts re­qui­res on­ly a sin­gle gen. set. Fur­ther­mo­re, when the ya­cht is ly­ing to an an­chor or ber­thed in a ma­ri­na wi­th no sho­re li­ne one of the th­ree gen, se­ts may suf­fi­ce (pos­si­bly two de­pen­ding on loads) to ful­fil “ho­tel” re­qui­re­men­ts. Ma­ri­ne Au­to­ma­tion from Via­reg­gio con­tri­bu­ted in set­ting up this AC sy­stem (60 Hz fre­quen­cy) whi­ch tran­si­ts from a

PMS (Po­wer Ma­na­ge­ment Sy­stem) pa­nel. Ano­ther fea­tu­re is in the ex­ploi­ta­tion of two Te­ma pro­du­ced per­ma­nent ma­gne­tic elec­tric mo­tors di­rec­tly cou­pled to Rolls Roy­ce Pods. For con­struc­tion FR.037 “POLARIS 2”, a die­sel-elec­tric sy­stem was cho­sen. This one is ma­de up of 3 CAT C32 gen. se­ts wi­th an out­put of 1080 KW ea­ch wi­th va­ria­ble rpm and fre­quen­cy and a fur­ther two CAT C9.3 gen. se­ts of 355 KW wi­th va­ria­ble rpm and fre­quen­cy. The­se de­li­ver ener­gy to DC pa­nels via in­ver­ters whi­ch in turn sup­ply ho­tel re­qui­re­men­ts as well as two va­ria­ble fre­quen­cy Ma­rel­li elec­tric mo­tors of 1600 KW con­nec­ted to 360° ro­ta­ting Pods. The use of va­ria­ble fre­quen­cy means that when crui­sing at about 15 kno­ts or in Eco mo­de at about 12 kno­ts, gen. se­ts func­tion re­spon­ding to ef­fec­ti­ve loads thus en­gen­de­ring lo­wer fuel con­sump­tion.

AZI­MUT BE­NET­TI (sour­ce Gil­ber­to Fran­ce­si­ni, R&D team AZI­MUT BE­NET­TI Group)

Azi­mut Be­net­ti Group was among the fir­st to in­ve­st in R&D wi­th a view to build ya­ch­ts equip­ped wi­th hy­brid die­sel-elec­tric po­wer hou­ses. Th­ree dif­fe­rent in­no­va­ti­ve so­lu­tions ha­ve been de­ve­lo­ped in re­cent years. Ea­ch one ser­ves a spe­ci­fic ty­po­lo­gy of ya­cht wi­th its own fea­tu­res. Let’s ta­ke a clo­ser look.

Azi­mut Ma­gel­la­no 50 and “EA­SY HY­BRID” sy­stem (com­ple­tion in sum­mer of 2012)

Ma­gel­la­no 50, was equip­ped wi­th tra­di­tio­nal die­sel en­gi­nes si­de by si­de wi­th a full hy­brid sy­stem whi­ch en­vi­sa­ges the sa­me per­for­man­ce de­li­ve­red by the con­ven­tio­nal­ly pro­pel­led mo­del but al­so to crui­se up to about 6 kno­ts in elec­tric mo­de. “EA­SY HY­BRID” – the sy­stem’s na­me was de­ve­lo­ped at Az-

imut Be­net­ti Group’s R&D sec­tion wi­th in­put from RTN equip­ped wi­th an elec­tric Au­xi­lia 19 Kw mo­tor in­stal­led on­to ea­ch one of the two shaf­ts in li­ne. The ya­cht can crui­se on main die­sels on­ly, on a die­sel-elec­tric com­bi­na­tion or so­le­ly on 28 KWH bat­te­ries via the two elec­tric mo­tors whi­ch al­low you to crui­se along when the main en­gi­nes are swit­ched off. In al­ter­na­ti­ve to the bat­te­ries or ZEM mo­de a 37 KW die­sel gen. set can be used in­stead. EA­SY HY­BRID sy­stem means you can swit­ch from tra­di­tio­nal to elec­tric any ti­me al­so whi­le crui­sing. This was the mo­st com­plex and fu­tu­ri­stic pro­ject de­ve­lo­ped by the group at the ti­me. Be­net­ti Tri­deck My Pa­ra­di­se: Com­ple­tion in the Spring of 2014 The fir­st of the Be­net­ti 108’ mo­dels was built to car­ry au­xi­lia­ry die­sel- elec­tric dri­ves cou­pled to the main die­sel en­gi­nes. Azi­mut Be­net­ti Group’s R&D team drew up the pro­ject work in col­la­bo­ra­tion wi­th RTN. Thanks to the hy­dro­dy­na­mic cha­rac­te­ri­stics of di­spla­cing ya­ch­ts of this si­ze whi­ch sport a speed whi­ch is 40% hi­gher than the top speed wi­th on­ly 8% of the main die­sel en­gi­nes’ po­wer and wi­th the au­xi­lia­ry die­sel-elec­tric sy­stem ma­de up of two Au­xi­lia 35 KW elec­tric mo­tors sup­plied by an 85 KW gen.set. Wi­th this set up a ma­xi­mum of 6 kno­ts can be at­tai­ned, in to­tal com­fort in com­pa­ri­son to the 14 kno­ts that can be rea­ched by de­ploy­ing the die­sel en­gi­nes alo­ne.

Be­net­ti FB262 Lio­n­heart: Com­ple­tion in the Sum­mer of 2016 La FB262 is a 90 me­tre Gi­ga ya­cht spor­ting a die­sel-elec­tric dri­ve sy­stem wi­th 8 gen. se­ts: fi­xed rpm. 830 KW 690V and 50 HZ for ea­ch of the Ca­ter­pil­lar C32 en­gi­nes sup­ply­ing to elec­tric dri­ve mo­tors: In­dar/abb of 2.8 MW ea­ch. In prac­ti­cal terms the ship has a sin­gle elec­tric po­wer hou­se whi­ch sup­plies what is nee­ded to ser­ve on board re­qui­re­men­ts as well as the elec­tric dri­ves. T he fol­lo­wing ad­van­ta­ges ha­ve been ob­tai­ned by de­ploy­ing this sy­stem:thanks to a mo­re com­pact en­gi­ne room and to the fle­xi­bi­li­ty in po­si­tio­ning the gen. se­ts, spa­ce avai­la­ble can be op­ti­mi­sed to of­fer mo­re of it to guests. En­han­ced di­stri­bu­tion of ener­gy and less fuel con­sump­tion thanks to the frac­tio­ning of the po­wer hou­se (ma­de up of the 8 gen. se­ts) whi­ch al­lo­ws you to de­ploy on­ly the ones nee­ded. En­han­ced ma­noeu­vra­bi­li­ty de­li­ve­red by elec­tric en­gi­nes. Ad­ded com­fort thanks to noi­se dam­pe­ned die­sel gen. se­ts equip­ped wi­th ef­fi­cient low vi­bra­tion si­lent blocks. Wi­th this set up the ship can rea­ch mo­re than 18 kno­ts whi­le gua­ran­teeing suf­fi­cient ener­gy to all on board re­qui­re­men­ts. Whi­le four gen. se­ts are enou­gh to gua­ran­tee 14 kno­ts whi­le crui­sing by day in­clu­ding crui­sing by night on bat­te­ries alo­ne.


(sour­ce Gian­pao­lo La Pen­na, pro­duc­tion ma­na­ger Co­lum­bus Ya­cht) Co­lum­bus Ya­cht, wi­th con­si­de­ra­ble ex­pe­rien­ce gai­ned in the buil­ding of na­val ves­sels from brand ow­ner Grup­po Pa­lum­bo in­stal­led die­sel elec­tric dri­ves for the fir­st ti­me in 2013 on Co­lum­bus 40S Hy­brid. It was la­ter pro­po­sed for the all new se­ries of “Sport Hy­brid” ya­ch­ts ma­de up of se­mi-di­spla­cing alu­mi­nium ya­ch­ts bet­ween 25 and 65 me­tres. We’re tal­king about weight sa­ving ya­ch­ts fea­tu­ring wind pier­cing li­nes to mi­ni­mi­ze fuel con­sump­tion and spe­cial­ly whi­le crui­sing slow and crui­sing in elec­tric mo­de be­co­mes pos­si­ble. Ac­cor­din­gly the Co­lum­bus 40S Hy­brid de­si­gned and en­gi­nee­red by Hy­dro Tec stu­dio ow­ned by Ser­gio Cu­to­lo (en­gi­neer) we’re tal­king about a ya­cht di­spla­cing 190 tons whi­ch can crui­se at 8 kno­ts wi­th on­ly 30 li­tres /hour of die­sel fuel thanks to two Sie­mens 60 KW elec­tric mo­tors sup­plied by gen. se­ts. When de­ploy­ing the main en­gi­nes (two MTU 12V 2000 M94 of 1.920 HP) the ya­cht can rea­ch 22 kno­ts. The in­stal­led and fi­ne tu­ned hy­brid sy­stem on the Co­lum­bus 40S Hy­brid is ma­de up of a mix of dif­fe­rent ele­men­ts and de­vi­ces put to­ge­ther to ge­ne­ra­te sa­ti­sfac­to­ry me­cha­ni­cal and elec­tric ener­gy whi­ch is then run in­tel­li­gen­tly via user friend­ly tou­ch screens. It com­bi­nes con­ven­tio­nal dri­ves (en­gi­nes, gear tran­smis­sion box, shaft and props) whi­ch ha­ve been mo­di­fied by in­ser­ting a Po­wer Ta­ke In/po­wer Ta­ke Off de­vi­ce or PTI/PTO whi­ch when pres­sed on the tou­ch screen you swit­ch mo­de ac­cor­din­gly (elec­tric mo­de, die­sel mo­de, shaft ge­ne­ra­tor mo­de).

On the left pa­ge, Co­lum­bus 40S Hy­brid “DIVINE”DRI­VE sy­stems. A) ELEC­TRIC MO­DE In this mo­de two 100 Kw gen. se­ts pro­du­ce enou­gh ener­gy for the ship’s re­qui­re­men­ts in­clu­ding the elec­tric mo­tors ( die­sel-elec­tric pro­pul­sion) ea­ch of whi­ch can ab­sorb up to 75 KW to crui­se up to 8 kno­ts.this means the­re are still ano­ther 50 KW avai­la­ble wi­th whi­ch to hand­le the other on board re­qui­re­men­ts. In this mo­de the elec­tric en­gi­ne is ma­de to spin the pro­pel­ler shaft. B) DIE­SEL MO­DE In this mo­de the ship crui­ses on­ly wi­th the main die­sel en­gi­nes. C) SHAFT GE­NE­RA­TOR MO­DE In this mo­de the main die­sels spin the pro­pel­lers and the elec­tric ones are en­ga­ged and per­form as gen, se­ts as nee­ded.


(sour­ce Jen­ni­fer Hum­ph­rey, Com­mu­ni­ca­tion Ma­na­ger Volvo Penta) Swe­di­sh giant Volvo Penta in­tro­du­ced PODS thanks to its IPS dri­ves de­di­ca­ted to mid and small ya­cht si­zes. The com­pa­ny is bet­ting on what’s in sto­re in the near fu­tu­re in terms of hy­brid pro­pul­sion by pre­sen­ting a ZEM pro­ject of its IPS or In­board Per­for­man­ce Sy­stem. And wi­th the ad­di­tion of the hy- brid va­ria­ble, fur­ther ad­van­ta­ges will en­han­ce IPS in­stal­la­tions when crui­sing ze­ro emis­sion zo­nes and ad­ded com­fort (less noi­se and vi­bra­tion), lo­wer run­ning costs, as well as en­han­ced ma­noeu­vring. In fact the ma­xi­mum tor­que elec­tric en­gi­nes de­ve­lop at ve­ry low rpm bring about di­rec­tio­nal, im­me­dia­te re­spon­se and con­trol of the In­board Per­for­man­ce Sy­stem and of­fer the pos­si­bi­li­ty to crui­se up to 10 - 12 kno­ts. Thanks to a ve­ry in­tui­ti­ve con­trol sy­stem whi­ch ac­ts on a clut­ch, the cap­tain will be able to de­ci­de bet­ween the fol­lo­wing op­tions:

Elec­tric mo­de on­ly, this is whe­re the elec­tric mo­tor is pow❑ ered by li­thium ion bat­te­ries whi­ch can be char­ged wi­th a sho­re li­ne, or by the ya­cht’s main die­sel en­gi­ne.

Hy­brid mo­de, the die­sel en­gi­ne po­wers the ya­cht’s dri­ves ❑ wi­th an au­xi­lia­ry elec­tric en­gi­ne.

Tra­di­tio­nal mo­de, is whe­re the (In­board Per­for­man­ce Sys❑ tem) IPS works off the main die­sel en­gi­ne on­ly. The bat­te­ries’ ver­sa­ti­li­ty means that per­for­man­ce and de­si­gn can be cu­sto­mi­zed ac­cor­ding to use ty­pe: re­crea­tio­nal or com­mer­cial. Mo­re po­wer­ful bat­te­ries trans­la­te in­to op­ting to crui­se on an elec­tric ba­sis wi­th smal­ler less po­wer­ful die­sels and lo­wer run­ning costs ( less fuel). The pa­ral­lel hy­brid In­board Per­for­man­ce Sy­stem is cur­ren­tly being de­ve­lo­ped at Volvo Penta’s pre­mi­ses in Go­then­berg Swe­den . A te­st unit will hit the wa­ter to car­ry out sea tials in ear­ly 2020. The hy­brid IPS is sche­du­led to be on the mar­ket as of 2021 for com­mer­cial ship­ping and im­me­dia­te­ly af­ter that for re­crea­tio­nal pur­po­ses on ya­ch­ts wi­th an en­gi­ne ca­pa­ci­ty ran­ging from 8,000 c.c. to 13,000 c.c. or from 8 to 13 li­tres.the evo­lu­tion of this sy­stem in­to mul­ti­ple hy­brid tech­no­lo­gies wi­th all elec­tric op­tions is al­so en­vi­sa­ged in the cour­se of ti­me.

Ef­fi­cien­cy - The pos­si­bi­li­ty to ‘op­ti­mi­ze’ die­sel and elec­tric en­gi­nes ac­cor­ding to ef­fec­ti­ve ne­ces­si­ty and mo­re so at the hi­gher end. All of this si­gni­fi­can­tly re­du­ces fuel con­sump­tion.Com­fort - Crui­sing on elec­tric po­wer alo­ne re­du­ces noi­se and vi­bra­tion si­gni­fi­can­tly. Re­du­ced ex­hau­st emis­sions - Wi­th grea­ter pro­pul­si­ve ef­fi­cien­cy, whi­ch brings about lo­wer con­sump­tion and less un­wan­ted ex­hau­st ga­ses and when crui­sing in Ze­ro Emis­sion Mo­de (ZEM) by de­ploy­ing bat­te­ry po­we­red elec­tric en­gi­nes alo­ne.Spa­ce avai­la­ble - Gen. se­ts are ge­ne­ral­ly mo­re com­pact and lighter than clas­sic die­sel en­gi­nes. They sup­ply elec­tric ener­gy ea­si­ly and can be in­stal­led and split in di­ver­se pla­ces ac­cor­din­gly whi­ch re­sul­ts in ad­ded of­ten cru­cial spa­ce.Fle­xi­bi­li­ty - Pro­pul­sion and re­qui­red ener­gy can be paid out in di­ver­se ways ac­cor­ding to cour­ses un­der­ta­ken and to guests’ wi­shes.Sa­fe­ty - Mul­ti­ple num­bers of the sa­me uni­ts (gen. se­ts) en­su­re ad­ded sa­fe­ty in ca­se of fai­lu­re of so­me of the ap­pa­ra­tus and other­wi­se con­se­quent lack of ener­gy. Abo­ve, po­ten­tial ad­van­ta­ges of­fe­red by die­sel/elec­tric hy­brid pro­pul­sion.

Dia­gram sho­wing San­lo­ren­zo ya­ch­ts’ Elec­tric sy­stem – the co­re of the sy­stem being the PMS or Po­wer Ma­na­ge­ment Sy­stem whi­ch runs the dif­fu­sion of the di­ver­se forms of ener­gy and the di­stri­bu­tion of the ener­gy re­qui­red ac­cor­din­gly: th­rou­gh va­ria­ble speed ge­ne­ra­tors ( VSG) whi­ch mu­st be swit­ched on to re­spond to va­ry­ing loads and con­se­quent needs re­qui­red by the ya­ch­ts’ plan­ts, or when in har­bour by using ener­gy from sho­re li­nes as well. This way be­st ex­ploi­ts the re­sour­ces whi­ch sup­ply ener­gy whe­re nee­ded on­ly. The sy­stem is split in two sec­tions whi­ch can al­so func­tion in­de­pen­den­tly of one ano­ther.

San­lo­ren­zo 500 Exp E Mo­tion

So­me of the func­tions de­vi­sed for San­lo­ren­zo’s hy­brid sy­stem: 3a - boo­st mo­de: in ad­di­tion to die­sel en­gi­nes, elec­tric ones sup­ply ex­tra po­wer ( boo­st) to rea­ch top speed. The ener­gy ne­ces­sa­ry to the elec­tric en­gi­nes is sup­plied by gen. se­ts or by bat­te­ries. 3b – Eco speed mo­de: spe­cial­ly de­vi­sed and sui­ta­ble over long di­stan­ces at di­spla­cing speeds (10-12 kno­ts) wi­th a sin­gle die­sel en­gi­ne wor­king wi­th an elec­tric one cou­pled to it whi­ch ac­ts as gen.set to po­wer up the elec­tric one of the other dri­ve shaft and to de­li­ver ener­gy to on board

On the San­lo­ren­zo 500Exp E Mo­tion whi­ch is about to be built, and thanks to the com­pact­ness of the ge­ne­ra­tors when com­pa­red to a con­ven­tio­nal plant, ex­tra spa­ce has been ma­de avai­la­ble(18.5 m2) and an in­ter­nal pas­sa­geway wi­th see th­rou­gh walls has been in­stal­led to view the “Art Gal­le­ry En­gi­ne Room”.

ser­vi­ces by re­char­ging the ser­vi­ce bat­te­ries.3c – ZEM mo­de: In Ze­ro Emis­sion Mo­de dri­ve is so­le­ly en­su­red by the elec­tric en­gi­nes po­we­red by bat­te­ries whi­ch al­so de­li­ver ener­gy to on board ser­vi­ces. Ob­viou­sly this mo­de is li­mi­ted ac­cor­din­gly to the ener­gy sto­red in the bat­te­ries. By swit­ching to (va­ria­ble speed ge­ne­ra­tors) VSG or by tur­ning on die­sel/elec­tric mo­de the ran­ge and or du­ra­tion pe­riod in ZEM is re­sol­ved.

San­lo­ren­zo’s tho­rou­ghly te­sted ya­cht: the SL86 has re­cen­tly been re­newed wi­th the Hy­brid ver­sion. The fir­st two of the­se ya­ch­ts we­re al­rea­dy in the wa­ter in ear­ly 2018.

Tan­koa – la S502 Elet­tra in con­struc­tion

Tan­koa Mo­de 2 - “Hy­brid” mo­de in­stead ex­ploi­ts a sin­gle, main die­sel en­gi­ne to pro­pel the ya­cht and in­vol­ves the elec­tric one as a dy­na­mo whi­ch co­vers the needs of the ser­vi­ces and of the other elec­tric mo­tor. The Elet­tra S502 can rea­ch 12 kno­ts this way. The “hy­brid” mo­de is be­st ex­ploi­ted when co­ve­ring long hauls and when it is pos­si­ble to ma­ke full use of the op­tions the­re­fo­re re­du­cing the main en­gi­nes’ run­ning ti­mes as in this way the gen.se­ts can al­so re­main pe­rio­di­cal­ly off whi­ch leng­thens the in­ter­vals of pro­gram­med main­te­nan­ce work. In the gi­ven mo­de fuel con­sump­tion is still li­mi­ted to about 145 li­tres per hour ju­st a sha­de mo­re than the pre­vious mo­de. The bat­te­ries co­me in­to ac­tion if/when loads rea­ch peak le­vels and re­char­ge au­to­ma­ti­cal­ly when not in use. Tan­koa Mo­de 3 - “tra­di­tio­nal” mo­de sim­ply means using bo­th main die­sels and a gen.set wi­th the elec­tric mo­tors swit­ched off. This mo­de ex­ploi­ts the full po­ten­tial of the pro­pel­ling die­sel en­gi­nes the­re­by pu­shing the ya­cht to 17 kno­ts. Tan­koa Mo­de 4 - In “boo­ster” mo­de bo­th main die­sels are wor­king as well as the two gen. se­ts sin­ce the elec­tric mo­tors are al­so swit­ched on to in­crea­se po­wer out­put fur­ther. In this mo­de the ya­cht can rea­ch 18 kno­ts.

Tan­koa Mo­de 1 - “Die­sel Elet­tric” mo­de en­vi­sa­ges so­le use of gen. se­ts de­li­ve­ring a ma­xi­mum of 90 KW to co­ver the needs of the elec­tric mo­tors as well as all el­se. This crui­sing mo­de is bo­th ‘eco­no­mi­cal’ and com­for­ta­ble. In this mo­de, the Elet­tra S502 can rea­ch 10.5 kno­ts and the noi­se le­vel is mi­ni­mal gi­ven the noi­se dam­pe­ned gen. se­ts and fur­ther­mo­re the hour­ly con­sump­tion of the ge­ne­ra­tors is of about 116 li­tres per hour. It is ideal when crui­sing at night gi­ven the lack of un­wan­ted noi­se and when en­te­ring or exi­ting ports and bays.

Ros­si­na­vi – Die­sel-elec­tric plant dia­gram for con­struc­tion FR.032 “ENDEAVOUR 2” whi­ch can be run and mo­ni­to­red via tou­ch screen con­trol­ling the PMS (Po­wer Ma­na­ge­ment Sy­stem) ma­de by Ma­ri­ne Au­to­ma­tion.

Ros­si­na­vi - con­struc­tion FR.032 “ENDEAVOUR 2”.

Ros­si­na­vi - con­struc­tion FR.037 “POLARIS 2”, new 70 me­tre ICE Class su­pe­rya­cht.

Ma­gel­la­no 50 A

Ma­gel­la­no 50 B

Ma­gel­la­no 50 C

C Azi­mut Ma­gel­la­no 50 – EA­SY CRUI­SING de­vi­ce al­lo­ws users to chan­ge dri­ve mo­de in an in­tui­ti­ve and sa­fe way by choo­sing bet­ween the fol­lo­wing th­ree mo­des: HY­BRID, DIE­SEL, ELEC­TRIC. In HY­BRID MO­DE the sy­stem au­to­ma­ti­cal­ly swit­ches from Elec­tric to Die­sel and vi­ce­ver­sa ac­cor­ding to the po­si­tion of the con­trol le­ver and of the sta­te of char­ge in the bat­te­ries.B Azi­mut Ma­gel­la­no 50 – Crui­sing on stan­dard die­sel en­gi­nes: dri­ve is pro­vi­ded by main die­sel en­gi­nes whi­le gen. se­ts de­li­ver ener­gy sup­ply to all el­se and re­char­ge bat­te­ries. Azi­mut Ma­gel­la­no 50 – Crui­sing in die­sel-elec­tric mo­de: die­sel gen. se­ts sup­ply the elec­tric dri­ve mo­tor and al­so main­tain 10 KW avai­la­ble for on board ap­plian­ces whi­le the bat­te­ries al­ways kept in ‘float’ co­me in­to ac­tion to co­ver peaks. On the left pa­ge,A Azi­mut Ma­gel­la­no 50 – cru­sing in ZEM (ze­ro emis­sion mo­de) on bat­te­ries alo­ne (28.2 KWH) can gua­ran­tee a ran­ge of 6 nau­ti­cal mi­les at a top speed of 6 kno­ts.

Be­net­ti 108 Tri­deck My Pa­ra­di­se – elec­tric au­xi­lia­ry pro­pul­sion was rea­li­zed by in­stal­ling a pair of mo­di­fied Rein­t­jes WAS 344 in­ver­ters so as to ob­tain two ga­tes for in­co­ming po­wer, one for the die­sel en­gi­nes and a se­con­da­ry PTI (Po­wer Ta­ke In) one by whi­ch to con­nect an elec­tric au­xi­lia­ry to.

Be­net­ti 108 Tri­deck My Pa­ra­di­se

Azi­mut Ma­gel­la­no 53

Co­lum­bus 40S Hy­brid “DIVINE”

Ty­pi­cal Die­se­le­let­tric ar­chi­tec­tu­re adop­ted for the Be­net­ti FB262 Lio­n­heart Be­net­ti FB262 Lio­n­heart’s dri­ve sy­stem: Pu­re die­sel- elet­tric dri­ves whe­re the elec­tric en­gi­ne con­nec­ted to the the pro­pel­ler shaft is con­si­de­ra­bly smal­ler than a tra­di­tio­nal die­sel en­gi­ne and the gen, se­ts can be in­stal­led el­sewhe­re.

B Die­sel mo­de

A Elec­tric mo­de

C Shaft Gen. mo­de

Be­net­ti FB262 Lio­n­heart

Ma­ke up of Volvo Penta’s pa­ral­lel hy­brid IPS.

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