Mi­che­lan­ge­lo Me­ri­si det­to il Caravaggio

Mi­che­lan­ge­lo Me­ri­si kno­wn as Caravaggio

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Caravaggio è sta­to un pun­to di ri­fe­ri­men­to per mol­ti ar­ti­sti del Sei­cen­to in Ita­lia e in Eu­ro­pa, al pun­to da far na­sce­re il ter­mi­ne “ca­ra­vag­gi­smo“per de­fi­ni­re la sua in­fluen­za che si pro­trar­rà, con al­ter­ne vi­cen­de, si­no all’ot­to­cen­to e non so­lo. Pre­cur­so­re del­la pit­tu­ra mo­der­na, è sta­to l’ar­te­fi­ce di un pro­fon­do rin­no­va­men­to del­la tec­ni­ca pit­to­ri­ca ca­rat­te­riz­za­ta dal na­tu­ra­li­smo dei suoi sog­get­ti, dall’am­bien­ta­zio­ne rea­li­sti­ca e dall’uso per­so­na­lis­si­mo del­la lu­ce e dell’om­bra. Caravaggio par­te dal­la pre­pa­ra­zio­ne scu­ra e ag­giun­ge sol­tan­to i chia­ri e i mez­zi to­ni, di­pin­gen­do so­lo le par­ti in lu­ce. Non di­pin­ge le fi­gu­re nel­la lo­ro in­te­rez­za, ma so­lo una par­te. In tut­to il re­sto del qua­dro c’è un fon­do scu­ro. Non esi­ste nel­la Ber­ga­ma­sca un di­pin­to di uno dei più ce­le­bri pit­to­ri ita­lia­ni, Mi­che­lan­ge­lo Me­ri­si det­to il Caravaggio, la cui fa­ma è uni­ver­sa­le. Na­to nel 1571, nel cor­so de­gli an­ni fu mol­to con­tro­ver­so il suo luo­go d’ori­gi­ne, a Caravaggio, nel­la pia­nu­ra ber­ga­ma­sca, o Mi­la­no. Do­po l’ap­pren­di­sta­to in que­sta cit­tà, co­nob­be i pri­mi suc­ces­si a Ro­ma di­ve­nen­do ben pre­sto ar­ti­sta di gran­de fa­ma. Per il suo ca­rat­te­re tur­bo­len­to, fu coin­vol­to in ris­se, li­ti, con ar­re­sti e pro­ces­si. Do­po l’en­ne­si­ma vio­len­za, fug­gì da Ro­ma; in­co­min­ciò co­sì un’esi­sten­za er­ra­bon­da, sog­gior­nan­do in va­rie cit­tà do­ve rea­liz­zò ca­po­la­vo­ri che se­gna­no il suo cam­mi­no di straor­di­na­rio ar­ti­sta. Tra le sue tap­pe più no­te Na­po­li, Mal­ta e la Si­ci­lia. Mo­rì a Por­to Er­co­le, ma me­ri­ta sen­za dub­bio co­no­sce­re i luo­ghi del­la sua fa­mi­glia di ori­gi­ne (i ge­ni­to­ri Fer­mo Me­ri­si e Lu­cia Ara­to­ri era­no na­ti­vi di Caravaggio) e il suo ter­ri­to­rio cir­co­stan­te ric­co di te­sti­mo­nian­ze d’ar­te, con la pos­si­bi­li­tà di pia­ce­vo­li so­ste.

Caravaggio was a point of re­fe­ren­ce for ma­ny ar­tists in the se­ven­teen­th cen­tu­ry in Ita­ly and Eu­ro­pe, to the point that the term “ca­ra­vag­gi­sm“was crea­ted to de­fi­ne his in­fluen­ce, whi­ch has con­ti­nued in so­me form sin­ce the ni­ne­teen­th cen­tu­ry and beyond. The fo­re­run­ner of mo­dern pain­ting, he was in­stru­men­tal in in­no­va­ting pain­ting tech­ni­ques, in­tro­du­cing na­tu­ra­li­sm to the pain­ting of his su­b­jec­ts, using rea­li­stic set­tings and crea­ting a ve­ry per­so­nal way of de­pic­ting light and sha­de. Caravaggio starts wi­th a dark ground and adds on­ly light co­lours and half-to­nes, pain­ting ju­st the areas in light. He does not paint who­le fi­gu­res, on­ly a part of them. In the re­st of the pic­tu­re the­re’s a dark back­ground. The­re are no pain­tings in the Ber­ga­mo area of one of the mo­st ce­le­bra­ted pain­ters in Ita­ly, Mi­che­lan­ge­lo Me­ri­si al­so kno­wn as Caravaggio, who­se fa­me is uni­ver­sal. Born in 1571, his pla­ce of bir­th, du­ring the years was mu­ch di­spu­ted, being ei­ther Caravaggio on the plains of Ber­ga­mo Pro­vin­ce or Mi­lan. Af­ter ti­me as an ap­pren­ti­ce in this ci­ty, he fir­stly achie­ved suc­cess in Ro­me and soon be­ca­me an ar­ti­st of great re­no­wn. Be­cau­se of his un­ru­ly cha­rac­ter, he was of­ten in­vol­ved in fights and ar­gu­men­ts, whi­ch led to ar­rests and trials. Af­ter the ump­teen­th fight, he fled from Ro­me and be­gan a va­ga­bond exi­sten­ce, stay­ing in va­rious ci­ties whe­re he crea­ted ma­ster­pie­ces that mar­ked his ca­reer as an ex­traor­di­na­ry ar­ti­st. So­me of his be­st kno­wn so­journs we­re in Na­ples, Mal­ta and Si­ci­ly. He died in Por­to Er­co­le, but the pla­ces of his fa­mi­ly (pa­ren­ts Fer­mo Me­ri­si and Lu­cia Ara­to­ri we­re born in Caravaggio) and the sur­roun­ding area, are al­so well wor­th get­ting to know, being ri­ch in art and wi­th ma­ny in­te­re­sting pla­ces to stay. n

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