Cul­tural Based In­sti­tu­tions

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Look­ing at the Asian cul­tures a type of moral stan­dard was es­tab­lished to main­tain the so­cial wel­fare sys­tem. For ex­am­ple, “Neo-Con­fu­cian prac­tices— com­mu­nity gra­naries, self-de­fense units, lo­cal schools and academies, fam­ily rit­u­als, com­mu­nity wine-drink­ing cer­e­monies, etc.”154

Ac­cord­ing to Zhu Xi's per­cep­tion, the need ex­isted for some public struc­tures be­tween fam­ily and state. Zhu Xi's aim to in­cor­po­rate the prin­ci­ple of vol­un­tarism into “com­mu­nity struc­tures that might me­di­ate be­tween state power and fam­ily in­ter­est.”155

It is im­por­tant to have a com­mu­nity base to build a state. But it should be based on moral­ity. Then that moral­ity can jus­tify whether the cul­ture-based civil

so­ci­ety or in­sti­tu­tion is good or not. There­fore, moral­ity is a very im­por­tant is­sue; it is the back­bone for build­ing a so­ci­ety and a na­tion for peace and har­mony.

Within Chris­tian cul­ture, the Ad­ven­tist church is strongly based on bib­li­cal prin­ci­ples of moral­ity. Ad­ven­tism main­tains a con­ser­va­tive life style, in­clud­ing, among other health prin­ci­ples, re­frain­ing from smok­ing and drink­ing. As an in­sti­tu­tion, Ad­ven­tism is fit for pro­mo­tion of a good civil so­ci­ety. Even­tu­ally, this re­sults in a re­li­gion-based, then cul­ture-based trans­for­ma­tion.

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