Kids allowed alcohol more likely to drink later
Unsafe foodstuffs can contain many types of harmful bacteria, viruses, parasites or chemicals.
Examples include undercooked meat, fruits and vegetables contaminated with faeces and shellfish containing marine toxins.
But the WHO says investigating these outbreaks has become increasingly challenging as single plates of food often have ingredients from many countries.
In its first WHO report on this issue, its director-general Dr Margaret Chan warns: “A local food problem can quickly turn into an international emergency.
“Food production has been industrialised, and its trade and distribution have been globalised.
“These changes introduce multiple opportunities for food to become contaminated with harmful bacteria, viruses, parasites or chemicals.”
The analysis, which pulls together scientific literature from across the globe, shows:
Most deaths are caused by pathogens such as salmonella, E. coli and norovirus
The majority of lives lost are in Africa and South East Asia
40 percent of the deaths are among the under-5s, the most vulnerable group
Raw hazards Experts say illnesses caused by food also carry major economic risks.
They estimate the E. coli outbreak in Germany in 2011 cost about Us$1.3bn (£876m) in losses for farmers and industries.
WHO leaders are calling on governments to urgently strengthen food safety systems.
On 7 April 2015, the WHO launched its food safety campaign, From Farm to Plate.
It aims to prompt the public and governments to consider where individual ingredients in meals come from and question whether these are properly and safely handled at every stage.
How to be food-safe: Wash hands, surfaces and equipment before preparing food
Separate raw and cooked food — use separate utensils for handling raw foods
Safe temperatures — do not keep cooked food at room temperature for more than two hours. Keep food piping hot (above 60C) before serving
Use safe water to wash raw fruit and vegetables — WHO The American Society for Reproductive Medicine estimates that up to 13 percent of female infertility diagnoses are due to smoking. Believe it or not, smoking as few as five cigarettes a day each has been associated with IF you’ve already allowed your kids to take a little sip of your beer or wine from time to time, you probably won’t be pleased when you hear the findings of a new report.
The study, published in the Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, found that children who had sipped alcohol by the sixth grade were about five times more likely to have a full drink by the time they were in high school and four times more likely to binge drink or get drunk.
“I don’t think parents need to feel that their child is ‘doomed,’” Kristina Jackson, one of the coauthors of the study, said of parents who already let their kids have sips of alcohol.
She noted that only a quarter of the sippers reported consuming a full drink by the ninth grade and that less than 10 percent said they got drunk.
“I think the most important thing is to make sure that children know when drinking alcohol is acceptable and when it is not,” said Jackson, a research associate professor at Brown University’s Centre for Alcohol and Addiction Studies.
The study involved surveys of 561 middle school students in Rhode Island over a three-year period.
A little under a third of the students said they had sipped alcohol by the start of middle school, When men or women carry extra weight, hormonal shifts occur in the body that can affect with most of those saying they got the alcohol from their parents at a party or on a special occasion.
Even when factoring out issues that could encourage problem drinking down the road, such as how much their parents drink, a history of alcoholism in their family or having a risk-taking personality, the children who sipped were more likely to be drinking in high school, said Jackson.
Twenty-six percent of the kids who had sipped alcohol said they had a full drink by the ninth grade versus under 6 percent for the kids who never sipped alcohol, the survey found.
Nine percent said they had binged on alcohol ( had five or more drinks at one time) or gotten drunk versus under 2 percent for the non-sippers.
“I would say that it is advisable not to offer your child a sip of your beverage, as it may send the wrong message — younger teens and tweens may be unable to understand the difference between drinking a sip and drinking one or more drinks,” Jackson said.
This latest study follows a report last year, also in the Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs (PDF), that analysed a number of studies all coming to the same conclusion: Offering even small amounts of alcohol to children could lead to negative outcomes.
A 2011 study in Sweden of 13-year-olds found that when children were offered alcohol by a parent, it was associated with a higher likelihood of heavy episodic drinking in girls but not in boys.
A 1997 study of fourth- and sixth-graders in the United States found that when parents offered children a small amount of alcohol, the children were more likely to initiate alcohol use on their own. In addition, another study compared seventh-graders in the United States with Australia, where adult supervised drinking for teens is allowed. About 36 percent of the Australian teens had problems with binge drinking, compared with only 21 percent of American teens, according to the 2011 study.
However, one study that was done over a decade ago seemed to come to the opposite conclusion. It found that early introductions to alcohol could actually reduce the likelihood of binge drinking later on.
That study, conducted in 2004 and reported in a lengthy Time magazine story in 2008, found that children who drank with their parents were about half as likely to say they had alcohol in the past month and about onethird as likely to admit to binge drinking than kids who did not drink with their parents. — CNN
Kids allowed to sip alcohol are more likely to have a full drink by high school, a study found.