Nu­clear weapons states up­grade war­heads

Lesotho Times - - International -

John El­lis Bush was born 11 Fe­bru­ary, 1953 in Mid­land, Texas. It was an ivied up­bring­ing, and teenage Jeb moved to Mas­sachusetts to en­ter elite Phillips Academy, the same pri­vate prep school his fa­ther and brother at­tended.

This Fe­bru­ary he ad­mit­ted to Huff­in­g­ton Post that “I drank al­co­hol and I smoked mar­i­juana” at the school, where he was ac­cused of bul­ly­ing stu­dents and hav­ing scant in­ter­est in pol­i­tics.

As part of a school pro­gramme he STOCK­HOLM — Nu­clear armed states con­tinue to up­grade their stock­piles de­spite an in­ter­na­tional trend to­wards dis­ar­ma­ment, the Stock­holm In­ter­na­tional Peace Re­search In­sti­tute re­ported Monday.

Be­tween 2010 and 2015 the num­ber of war­heads fell from 22 600 to 15 850 ac­cord­ing to the in­sti­tute’s an­nual dis­ar­ma­ment report which said the US and Rus­sia rep­re­sented the bulk of the re­duc­tion. The in­sti­tute also pointed to “ex­ten­sive and ex­pen­sive long-term mod­ern­iza­tion pro­grammes” in the world’s two largest nu­clear pow­ers which ac­count for 90 per­cent of the weapons.

“De­spite re­newed in­ter­na­tional in­ter­est in pri­or­i­tiz­ing nu­clear dis­ar­ma­ment, the mod­ern­iza­tion pro­grammes un­der way in the nu­clear weapon-pos­sess­ing states sug­gests that none of them will give up their nu­clear ar­se­nals in the fore­see­able trav­elled in 1970 to Mex­ico, where he met the love of his life, Columba Gar­nica Gallo.

They were mar­ried at Univer­sity of Texas, where Mr Bush ex­celled as a stu­dent.

Mr Bush got an early taste of in­ter­na­tional diplo­macy in 1977 at age 24 when they headed to Cara­cas, Venezuela where Jeb worked as branch man­ager for the Texas Com­merce Bank.

Mr Bush vol­un­teered for his fa­ther’s 1980 cam­paign, then worked in real es­tate be­fore be­ing ap­pointed Florida’s sec­re­tary of com­merce.

He cam­paigned full-time for Mr Bush Sr in 1988, then un­suc­cess­fully sought the gov­er­nor’s mansion in 1994, when his pru­dence over­shad­owed po­lit­i­cal savvy.

Asked what he would do for African-amer­i­cans if elected gov­er­nor, Bush sought to stress equal­ity of op­por­tu­nity and an­swered: “prob­a­bly noth­ing.”

That year Mr Bush, who was raised Epis­co­palian, turned to his wife’s re­li­gion, Catholi­cism, and even­tu­ally con­verted.

“It’s made me a bet­ter per­son,” fu­ture,” SIPRI re­searcher Shan­non Kile said in a state­ment.

The other three nu­clear armed states legally recog­nised by the 1968 Nu­clear Non- Pro­lif­er­a­tion Treaty — China (260 war­heads), France (300 war­heads), Bri­tain (215 war­heads) — are “ei­ther de­vel­op­ing or de­ploy­ing new nu­clear weapon sys­tems or have an­nounced their in­ten­tion to do so” ac­cord­ing to the Stock­holm-based peace in­sti­tute.

China was the only state among the five global nu­clear pow­ers to have a “mod­est” in­crease in the size of its arse­nal. While the re­main­ing nu­clear states — In­dia (90 to 100 war­heads), Pak­istan (100 to 120 war­heads) and Is­rael (80 war­heads) — have con­sid­er­ably smaller stock­piles, In­dia and Pak­istan con­tinue to in­crease their ar­se­nals while Is­rael has tested lon­grange bal­lis­tic mis­siles.

North Korea is be­lieved to be de- Mr Bush told the in March.

New York Times

Con­ser­va­tive gov­er­nor He shifted from hard-charg­ing ide­o­logue to a more com­pas­sion­ate can­di­date in 1998, but ul­ti­mately went on a con­ser­va­tive tear dur­ing his 1999 to 2007 gov­er­nor­ship.

Mr Bush cut Florida taxes by $19 bil­lion, pri­va­tised many state jobs, cre­ated the na­tion’s first school voucher pro­grammes — later ruled un­con­sti­tu­tional — and in­ter­vened in di­vi­sive right-to-life cases, in­clud­ing that of a brain-dam­aged woman.

He also signed the con­tro­ver­sial “stand your ground” law al­low­ing peo­ple to use deadly force when threat­ened, and tight­ened his con­trol over ju­di­cial nom­i­na­tions.

Mr Bush gov­erned Florida dur­ing the toxic 2000 pres­i­den­tial elec­tion that went down to the wire, ul­ti­mately in favour of his brother.

The US Com­mis­sion on Civil Rights af­ter­wards de­ter­mined the process was rid­dled with faults, in­clud­ing “overzeal­ous ef­forts to purge vot­ers from the rolls”. velop­ing its arse­nal of six to eight war­heads but SIPRI said “tech­ni­cal progress” was dif­fi­cult to as­sess.

Re­li­able in­for­ma­tion on nu­clear stock­piles var­ied greatly be­tween states with the US get­ting top marks for trans­parency in the report, while Bri­tain and France were more re­stric­tive and Rus­sia di­vulged noth­ing of­fi­cially, ex­cept in bi­lat­eral con­tacts with the US.

In Asia, China re­vealed lit­tle about its arse­nal and the only in­for­ma­tion made pub­lic by nu­clear ri­vals In­dia and Pak­istan was an­nounce­ments of mis­sile tests. The five nu­clear pow­ers and mem­bers of the UN Se­cu­rity Coun­cil — US, Rus­sia, China, Bri­tain and France — along with Ger­many, are in on­go­ing talks with Iran to per­suade the Is­lamic Repub­lic not to de­velop nu­clear weapons in ex­change for the lift­ing of in­ter­na­tional sanc­tions. — AFP

Mr Bush has not held pub­lic of­fice for eight years. He quickly tran­si­tioned into the busi­ness world, ap­par­ently un­apolo­getic in his de­ter­mi­na­tion to get rich.

He be­came an ad­vi­sor to Lehman Broth­ers as the firm was on its last legs in 2008, and later to Lon­don­based Bar­clays. He formed Brit­ton Hill Part­ners in 2008 and man­aged BH Global Aviation, an offshore pri­vate eq­uity fund which raised $61 mil­lion last Septem­ber, largely from for­eign in­vestors, ac­cord­ing to Bloomberg. Mr Bush joined Mi­ami firm In­novida as a paid con­sul­tant, but the build­ing ma­te­ri­als com­pany went bank­rupt in 2011 and its founder was jailed for fraud.

While Mr Bush an­nounced he has di­vested from all his busi­ness in­ter­ests, his record will un­dergo in­tense scru­tiny, like that of 2012 Re­pub­li­can nom­i­nee Mitt Rom­ney, who made mil­lions through his firm Bain Cap­i­tal.

Last De­cem­ber Mr Bush dis­missed sug­ges­tions he was on a Rom­ney-like ven­ture cap­i­tal path: “It’s like com­par­ing an ap­ple to a peanut.” — AFP

Nu­clear armed states con­tinue to up­grade their stock­piles de­spite an in­ter­na­tional trend to­wards dis­ar­ma­ment.

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