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in­tel­li­gi­ble clear enough to be eas­ily un­der­stood: She spoke so softly and so rapidly that what she said was scarcely in­tel­li­gi­ble to us. in­volved com­pli­cated, dif­fi­cult to un­der­stand: It is such a long novel with such an in­volved plot that it took me a long time to read it. in­volved also means tak­ing part in some­thing con­nected with some­thing: Pam is very much in­volved in the lo­cal mu­sic so­ci­ety.

jar­gon lan­guage used by peo­ple work­ing in a par­tic­u­lar area which is of­ten rather tech­ni­cal or spe­cialised and which is not eas­ily un­der­stood by other peo­ple: The two lawyers were dis­cussing the case, but I didn’t un­der­stand their le­gal jar­gon. jar­gon is also used of lan­guage which is used to try to make the speaker or writer seem clever, more knowl­edge­able, etc. than they re­ally are, but which is un­nec­es­sar­ily dif­fi­cult to un­der­stand and fre­quently mean­ing­less: Jim is writ­ing a re­port which is full of jar­gon be­cause he thinks it will im­press the new man­ager, but in fact, she said that she wanted ev­ery­thing writ­ten in plain English. long-winded writ­ing or speak­ing at too great a length; us­ing too many words: The lec­turer was so long-winded that we were all very bored. ob­scure dif­fi­cult to un­der­stand be­cause it is not clearly ex­pressed: This ob­scure doc­u­ment does not help us to un­der­stand the prob­lem. pre­ten­tious try­ing to give the ap­pear­ance of be­ing grander, more im­por­tant, more in­tel­li­gent than is ac­tu­ally the case; to try and im­press some­one: Sara be­haved in a very pre­ten­tious way when she met her fi­ance’s par­ents for the first time. ram­bling

1. of a piece of writ­ing or speech, too long and con­fused, with sev­eral changes of sub­ject: Jim was asked to give a short af­ter-din­ner speech, but in­stead he told a ram­bling story which no one un­der­stood.

2. with ref­er­ence to a build­ing, spread­ing out in var­i­ous direc­tions over a wide area, with­out any par­tic­u­lar shape or plan

3. with ref­er­ence to a plant, grow­ing or climb­ing in many dif­fer­ent direc­tions straight­for­ward sim­ple, easy to un­der­stand: You will find the in­struc­tions for the sewing ma­chine quite straight­for­ward. \ straight­for­ward, when used of a per­son, means hon­est and open: Jack is likely to try and de­ceive you, but his brother Tom is com­pletely straight­for­ward. tech­ni­cal con­nected with in­dus­try or ap­plied science: We hope to make sev­eral tech­ni­cal im­prove­ments to the fac­tory pro­duc­tion sys­tem. We’ve had some tech­ni­cal prob­lems with the new com­puter. tech­ni­cal also means con­nected with a par­tic­u­lar sub­ject or job and there­fore not eas­ily un­der­stood by peo­ple who do not work at it: The re­port con­tained a lot of fi­nan­cial tech­ni­cal terms which I did not un­der­stand. ter­mi­nol­ogy the spe­cial words and ex­pres­sions used in con­nec­tion with a par­tic­u­lar sub­ject: I didn’t un­der­stand what the doc­tor wrote be­cause he used a lot of med­i­cal ter­mi­nol­ogy. ver­bose us­ing or con­tain­ing more words than are nec­es­sary: Your ex­pla­na­tion was far too ver­bose; please just state the facts.

Read the pas­sage and def­i­ni­tions care­fully and an­swer the fol­low­ing ques­tions.

1. Re­write the fol­low­ing sen­tence, re­plac­ing the words in bold with a verb:

It is dif­fi­cult to com­pre­hend Mark’a at­ti­tude to his fam­ily.

2. The peo­ple with whom you work can be called by work­mates, which is quite an in­for­mal word. From the pas­sage write down a more for­mal word for this.

3. Re­write the fol­low­ing sen­tence, re­plac­ing the words in bold with a word:

Mike likes to show peo­ple how modern he is and is al­ways us­ing all the lat­est fash­ion­able and pop­u­lar words in his lec­tures; most of the au­di­ence don’t un­der­stand them.

4. What noun in the pas­sage is from the same word fam­ily as brief?

5. Re­write the fol­low­ing sen­tence, re­plac­ing the words in bold with an ad­jec­tive:

It is tak­ing me a long time to read the stu­dents’ es­says; some of them are so long and con­fused and wan­der from sub­ject to sub­ject.

6. Write down a word which means the op­po­site of in­volved as used in the pas­sage.

7. Re­write the fol­low­ing sen­tence, re­plac­ing the words in bold with a noun:

Each year the man­agers have to write a doc­u­ment giv­ing in­for­ma­tion on the progress of the mem­bers of their de­part­ments.

8. Re­write the fol­low­ing sen­tence, re­plac­ing the words in bold with a noun:

Many poor peo­ple who are in need of aid from the state do not ap­ply for it be­cause the ap­pli­ca­tion forms are full of of­fi­cial, com­pli­cated and ob­scure lan­guage.

9. Long-winded can mean us­ing too many words; write down from the pas­sage which also means this.

10. Re­write the fol­low­ing sen­tence, re­plac­ing the words in bold with a noun:

I promised Mark that I would trans­late this ar­ti­cle for him, but it is about med­i­cal re­search and I don’t un­der­stand the spe­cial words and phrases con­nected with it.

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