From Pan­g­long I to Pan­g­long II: a time­line

The Myanmar Times - - News - – Ei Ei Toe Lwin and An­drew Kas­par

Fe­bru­ary 1947 - The Pan­g­long Con­fer­ence is held in the town of Pan­g­long, Shan State, where on Fe­bru­ary 12 Bo­gyoke Aung San and eth­nic Chin, Kachin and Shan lead­ers sign an agree­ment of the same name. 1949 - The Karen Na­tional Union and its mil­i­tant wing, the Karen Na­tional Lib­er­a­tion Army, be­come the first eth­nic armed group to take up arms against the gov­ern­ment, seek­ing in­de­pen­dence from then-Burma. 1962 on­ward - The coun­try is plagued by a grow­ing num­ber of in­ter­nal con­flicts as eth­nic mi­nori­ties come to in­creas­ingly con­clude that the Pan­g­long Agree­ment and de­mands for greater au­ton­omy will not be honoured fol­low­ing Gen­eral Ne Win’s March 2 coup d’état. 1963 - Eth­nic armed in­sur­gent groups are in­vited for peace ne­go­ti­a­tions dur­ing Gen Ne Win’s Revo­lu­tion­ary Coun­cil, but the talks break down as the eth­nic armies refuse to ac­cept the dic­ta­tor’s de­mands. 1993 - Eth­nic armed groups are again in­vited to ne­go­ti­ate a peace set­tle­ment un­der the State Peace and De­vel­op­ment Coun­cil, with some reach­ing agree­ments that un­ravel about a decade later when the lead ne­go­tia­tor at the time, mil­i­tary in­tel­li­gence chief Gen­eral Khin Nyunt, is purged from his post and im­pris­oned. Au­gust 18, 2011 - Pres­i­dent U Thein Sein reaches out to the na­tion’s eth­nic armed groups, seek­ing to ne­go­ti­ate a last­ing peace as part of his re­formist legacy. Jan­uary 12, 2012 - The Karen Na­tional Union and the gov­ern­ment sign a bi­lat­eral cease­fire, bring­ing a truce in the coun­try’s long­est-run­ning in­ter­nal con­flict. Novem­ber 3, 2012 - The gov­ern­ment-af­fil­i­ated Myan­mar Peace Cen­ter launches with back­ing from the Euro­pean Union and other in­ter­na­tional donors. Novem­ber 2, 2013 - At the con­clu­sion of a meet­ing in Laiza, Kachin State, 16 eth­nic armed groups form the Na­tion­wide Cease­fire Co­or­di­na­tion Team (NCCT), and in do­ing so agree to help draft the gov­ern­ment’s pro­posed na­tion­wide cease­fire agree­ment (NCA). April 8, 2014 - Drafts of the NCA that were sub­mit­ted by the gov­ern­ment and eth­nic armed groups are com­bined and re­drawn as a single text. Fe­bru­ary 9, 2015 - The Myan­mar Na­tional Demo­cratic Al­liance Army launches an of­fen­sive against gov­ern­ment-held Laukkai in the Kokang re­gion. Two other eth­nic armed groups are em­broiled in the en­su­ing con­flict, pos­ing an ob­sta­cle to NCA ne­go­ti­a­tions and the broader peace process that carry over into 2016. March 31, 2015 - The com­bined draft NCA is pre­lim­i­nar­ily agreed among the 16 non-state armed groups and the gov­ern­ment. Oc­to­ber 15, 2015 - At a cer­e­mony in Nay Pyi Taw, eight non-state armed groups, the gov­ern­ment and the Tat­madaw sign the NCA. About a dozen eth­nic armed groups opt not to sign or are ex­cluded by the gov­ern­ment. Jan­uary 12, 2016 - The out­go­ing gov­ern­ment con­venes the Union Peace Con­fer­ence, in­volv­ing more than 700 par­tic­i­pants. NCA nonsigna­to­ries are al­lowed to at­tend only as ob­servers. March 30, 2016 - The Na­tional League for Democ­racy is sworn into power, in­her­it­ing both the progress and the stum­bling blocks left bhind by its pre­de­ces­sor. April 27, 2016 - State Coun­sel­lor Daw Aung San Suu Kyi urges all par­ties in­volved to work to­gether to con­vene a “21st-cen­tury Pan­g­long Con­fer­ence” within two months, promis­ing that in­clu­siv­ity will be a pri­or­ity. June 28, 2016 - The Union Peace Di­a­logue Joint Com­mit­tee, a key ne­go­ti­at­ing body formed by the pre­vi­ous gov­ern­ment, is re­con­sti­tuted with Daw Aung San Suu Kyi as head. Au­gust 8, 2016 - The gov­ern­ment an­nounces that it will con­vene the 21st-cen­tury Pan­g­long Con­fer­ence on Au­gust 31.

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