From Panglong I to Panglong II: a timeline
February 1947 - The Panglong Conference is held in the town of Panglong, Shan State, where on February 12 Bogyoke Aung San and ethnic Chin, Kachin and Shan leaders sign an agreement of the same name. 1949 - The Karen National Union and its militant wing, the Karen National Liberation Army, become the first ethnic armed group to take up arms against the government, seeking independence from then-Burma. 1962 onward - The country is plagued by a growing number of internal conflicts as ethnic minorities come to increasingly conclude that the Panglong Agreement and demands for greater autonomy will not be honoured following General Ne Win’s March 2 coup d’état. 1963 - Ethnic armed insurgent groups are invited for peace negotiations during Gen Ne Win’s Revolutionary Council, but the talks break down as the ethnic armies refuse to accept the dictator’s demands. 1993 - Ethnic armed groups are again invited to negotiate a peace settlement under the State Peace and Development Council, with some reaching agreements that unravel about a decade later when the lead negotiator at the time, military intelligence chief General Khin Nyunt, is purged from his post and imprisoned. August 18, 2011 - President U Thein Sein reaches out to the nation’s ethnic armed groups, seeking to negotiate a lasting peace as part of his reformist legacy. January 12, 2012 - The Karen National Union and the government sign a bilateral ceasefire, bringing a truce in the country’s longest-running internal conflict. November 3, 2012 - The government-affiliated Myanmar Peace Center launches with backing from the European Union and other international donors. November 2, 2013 - At the conclusion of a meeting in Laiza, Kachin State, 16 ethnic armed groups form the Nationwide Ceasefire Coordination Team (NCCT), and in doing so agree to help draft the government’s proposed nationwide ceasefire agreement (NCA). April 8, 2014 - Drafts of the NCA that were submitted by the government and ethnic armed groups are combined and redrawn as a single text. February 9, 2015 - The Myanmar National Democratic Alliance Army launches an offensive against government-held Laukkai in the Kokang region. Two other ethnic armed groups are embroiled in the ensuing conflict, posing an obstacle to NCA negotiations and the broader peace process that carry over into 2016. March 31, 2015 - The combined draft NCA is preliminarily agreed among the 16 non-state armed groups and the government. October 15, 2015 - At a ceremony in Nay Pyi Taw, eight non-state armed groups, the government and the Tatmadaw sign the NCA. About a dozen ethnic armed groups opt not to sign or are excluded by the government. January 12, 2016 - The outgoing government convenes the Union Peace Conference, involving more than 700 participants. NCA nonsignatories are allowed to attend only as observers. March 30, 2016 - The National League for Democracy is sworn into power, inheriting both the progress and the stumbling blocks left bhind by its predecessor. April 27, 2016 - State Counsellor Daw Aung San Suu Kyi urges all parties involved to work together to convene a “21st-century Panglong Conference” within two months, promising that inclusivity will be a priority. June 28, 2016 - The Union Peace Dialogue Joint Committee, a key negotiating body formed by the previous government, is reconstituted with Daw Aung San Suu Kyi as head. August 8, 2016 - The government announces that it will convene the 21st-century Panglong Conference on August 31.