Piping of Machineries and Packages
Piping can be a significant part of many machineries, equipment, facilities and packages; the design, analysis, installation and of operation of piping of machineries/ packages can involve the application of a number of codes and standards as well as many rules of thumbs.
This paper provides the engineers a practical understanding of the piping design, analysis and installation. Piping components, piping system design, material considerations, fabrication, examination and testing should be considered properly for any machinery or package piping; attention is needed for design loads for piping, piping flexibility analysis, branch reinforcement calculations, and temperature considerations. Proper considerations are also required for piping component standards, expansion loops, expansion joint applications, piping nozzle–equipment load requirements in various standards. The focus should be on design and analysis requirements, but also practical aspects of piping during fabrication, installation, commissioning and operation need to be considered. There are many different flange standards to be found worldwide. To allow easy functionality and inter-changeability, these are designed to have standardized dimensions. Most common world flange standard is ANSI/ASME (ASME B16.5 or ASME B16.47). There have been other flange standards which have been used in much smaller scales, such as PN/ DIN (some European counties), BS10 (British), and JIS/KS (Japanese). For some machineries/packages the piping inside package might be as per these flange standards, but the battery limits and plant piping is most likely as per ANSI/ASME. Many of the flanges in each standard are