Ba­sic recipes

Dish - Everyday Dish - - Contents -

SAUCES AND DRESS­INGS

AIOLI

2 cloves gar­lic, crushed

½ tea­spoon salt

½ tea­spoon Di­jon mus­tard

1 egg yolk

1 whole egg

150ml veg­etable oil

50ml olive oil

le­mon juice

sea salt and freshly ground pep­per

Put the gar­lic, salt, mus­tard, egg yolk and whole egg in a food pro­ces­sor and blend. With the mo­tor run­ning, slowly driz­zle in the com­bined oils to form a thick emul­sion. Add le­mon juice and sea­son. The le­mon juice will thin down the aioli. Re­frig­er­ate un­til ready to use.

HOL­LANDAISE SAUCE

200 grams but­ter

3 ta­ble­spoons white wine vine­gar

2 ta­ble­spoons wa­ter

1 ta­ble­spoon finely chopped shal­lot

3 whole black pep­per­corns

3 egg yolks

le­mon juice

Melt the but­ter and leave to cool a lit­tle. Boil the white wine vine­gar, wa­ter, chopped shal­lot and pep­per­corns un­til re­duced to 1 ta­ble­spoon. Strain into a bowl and place over a saucepan of barely sim­mer­ing wa­ter. Whisk in the egg yolks. Whisk­ing con­tin­u­ously, grad­u­ally in­cor­po­rate the but­ter un­til the mix­ture is thick and pale. Sea­son and add le­mon juice to taste.

HOT AND SWEET DIP­PING SAUCE

1 cup cider vine­gar

1 cup sugar

4 cloves gar­lic, roughly chopped

½ tea­spoon salt

1½ tea­spoons dried chilli flakes

Place the vine­gar and sugar in a small saucepan and bring to the boil. Stir un­til dis­solved then sim­mer for 5 min­utes. Place the gar­lic and salt in a mor­tar and mash to a paste. Add the chilli flakes and blend well. Pour the vine­gar mix­ture into a bowl and stir in the gar­lic paste. Al­low to cool.

HUM­MUS

200 grams chick­peas

2 ta­ble­spoons bak­ing soda

3 cloves gar­lic, peeled and left whole

1 bay leaf

juice of 2–3 le­mons plus zest of 1 le­mon

2 cloves gar­lic, crushed

3 ta­ble­spoons tahini

Soak the chick­peas overnight in cold wa­ter with the bak­ing soda. Next day, drain then rinse thor­oughly and place in a large pot with the gar­lic and bay leaf. Cover with cold wa­ter to 6cm above the chick­peas. Bring to the boil then lower the heat and sim­mer for ap­prox­i­mately 1½ hours or un­til the chick­peas are fall­ing apart and most of the wa­ter has evap­o­rated. Re­move the bay leaf and put the chick­peas in a food pro­ces­sor with the re­main­ing in­gre­di­ents and blend un­til smooth. Sea­son to taste and add more le­mon juice if needed.

MAY­ON­NAISE

1 whole egg

1 egg yolk

juice of 1 le­mon

2 tea­spoons Di­jon mus­tard

1 clove gar­lic, crushed

½ cup canola oil

¼ cup olive oil

sea salt and freshly ground pep­per

Put the egg, egg yolk, le­mon juice, mus­tard and gar­lic in a food pro­ces­sor and process un­til well com­bined. With the mo­tor run­ning, slowly driz­zle in the com­bined oils to make a thick emul­sion. Sea­son well.

NUOC CHAM

1 long red chilli, thinly sliced

1 clove gar­lic, finely chopped

2 tea­spoons caster sugar

½ cup wa­ter

3 ta­ble­spoons fish sauce

3 ta­ble­spoons lime juice

Com­bine all the in­gre­di­ents in a bowl.

PESTO

1 cup packed basil leaves

3 ta­ble­spoons pine nuts, toasted

2 cloves gar­lic, crushed

½ cup olive oil

⅔ cup freshly grated Parme­san cheese

sea salt and freshly ground pep­per

Place the basil, pine nuts, gar­lic and olive oil in a food pro­ces­sor and process un­til smooth. Tip into a bowl and stir in the Parme­san cheese and sea­son. Trans­fer to a jar and cover with a film of olive oil. Store in the re­frig­er­a­tor. Makes about 1 cup

SALSA VERDE

½ cup packed flat-leaf pars­ley

½ cup packed basil leaves

1 ta­ble­spoon capers

2 an­chovy fil­lets

1 clove gar­lic

1 ta­ble­spoon le­mon juice

1 ta­ble­spoon Di­jon mus­tard

¼ cup olive oil

Place the herbs, capers, an­chovies, gar­lic, le­mon juice and the mus­tard in a food pro­ces­sor and blend. Add the oil, sea­son and process again.

TZATZIKI

1 small tele­graph cu­cum­ber, lightly peeled

1½ cups plain, unsweet­ened Greek yo­ghurt

juice of a large le­mon

1 clove gar­lic, crushed

Cut the cu­cum­ber in half length­ways and use a tea­spoon to re­move the seeds. Grate the cu­cum­ber and place in a colan­der. Sprin­kle with salt and leave for ½ hour. Squeeze to re­move ex­cess liq­uid. Com­bine the cu­cum­ber with the other in­gre­di­ents and sea­son to taste.

VINAI­GRETTE

1 tea­spoon Di­jon mus­tard

1 ta­ble­spoon white wine vine­gar

1 clove gar­lic, crushed

3 ta­ble­spoons olive oil

sea salt and freshly ground pep­per

Put the mus­tard in a bowl then whisk in the vine­gar. Grad­u­ally whisk in the oil then sea­son.

PAS­TRY

SHORT­CRUST PAS­TRY

180 grams plain flour

pinch of salt

90 grams but­ter, diced and chilled

1 egg yolk

2–3 ta­ble­spoons cold wa­ter

Put the flour, salt and but­ter in a food pro­ces­sor and pulse to coarse crumbs. Com­bine the egg yolk and 2 ta­ble­spoons of wa­ter and add to the flour. Pulse to process un­til the dough just starts to come to­gether, only adding the ex­tra wa­ter if nec­es­sary. Over-mix­ing and too much wa­ter will make the pas­try tough. Tip onto a large piece of plas­tic wrap and bring the dough to­gether to form a flat disc. Wrap and chill un­til firm.

SWEET SHORT­CRUST PAS­TRY

1⅔ cups plain flour

½ tea­spoon sea salt

¾ cup ic­ing sugar, sifted

110 grams but­ter, diced and chilled

1 egg yolk

2–3 ta­ble­spoons chilled wa­ter

Put the flour, salt, ic­ing sugar and but­ter in a food pro­ces­sor and pulse to coarse crumbs. Com­bine the egg yolk and 2 ta­ble­spoons of the wa­ter and add, puls­ing again un­til the dough just starts to come to­gether. Add the ex­tra wa­ter only if nec­es­sary. Tip onto a large piece of plas­tic wrap and bring the dough to­gether to form a flat disc. Wrap and chill un­til firm.

FLAVOURED BUT­TERS

These are great to have on hand for im­promptu en­ter­tain­ing and can also be served on grilled steak, chicken or fish, tossed through roasted veg­eta­bles, beans or as­para­gus.

FOR EACH RECIPE

150 grams un­salted but­ter, at room

tem­per­a­ture sea salt and freshly ground pep­per

Mash the but­ter and flavour­ings with a fork, or com­bine in a food pro­ces­sor. Form into a log and wrap well in plas­tic wrap. Re­frig­er­ate for up to two weeks or freeze for up to a month.

BLACK OLIVE, AN­CHOVY AND LE­MON

12 black olives, pit­ted and finely chopped 6 an­chovy fil­lets, finely chopped zest ½ a le­mon 1 clove gar­lic, crushed

CAPER AND LE­MON

1 ta­ble­spoon chopped capers

2 cloves gar­lic, crushed

2 ta­ble­spoons chopped flat-leaf pars­ley

finely grated zest 1 le­mon

CHILLI, LIME AND CO­RIAN­DER

1 whole long red chilli, halved, seeded

and finely chopped finely grated zest 1 lime 2 ta­ble­spoons chopped co­rian­der

GINGER, SPRING ONION AND TURMERIC

1 ta­ble­spoon fresh ginger

2 spring onions, finely chopped

2 cloves gar­lic, crushed

½ tea­spoon ground turmeric

2 cloves gar­lic, crushed

PARME­SAN, BASIL AND GAR­LIC

30 grams finely grated Parme­san ½ cup basil leaves, finely chopped 1–2 cloves gar­lic, crushed

ROASTED GAR­LIC AND CHIVE

10 whole un­peeled cloves gar­lic, roasted

in tin­foil un­til soft 2 ta­ble­spoons finely chopped chives

ROASTED RED CAP­SICUM

½ roasted cap­sicum, finely chopped few drops Tabasco sauce 1 clove gar­lic, crushed

SMOKED PA­PRIKA AND CUMIN

1 tea­spoon sweet smoked pa­prika,

1 tea­spoon cumin seeds, toasted

and roughly ground

1 ta­ble­spoon finely chopped

flat-leaf pars­ley

STOCKS

A good stock is the foun­da­tion for many recipes across a wide range of cuisines. A sim­ple risotto can be el­e­vated to another level if a well-flavoured and full-bod­ied chicken stock is used. Many peo­ple feel in­tim­i­dated by the thought of mak­ing their own stocks, but it’s sim­ply a large pot filled with bones and veg­eta­bles, cov­ered with wa­ter and sim­mered gen­tly for sev­eral hours to ex­tract the max­i­mum flavour. Adding spices and in­fus­ing dif­fer­ent herbs will give you a wide range of flavour bases to use. There are a few rules that ap­ply when mak­ing any stocks:

• salt is never added. The re­duc­tion process can con­cen­trate the salt and ruin the end re­sult.

• use a tall, nar­row, heavy-based pot. This slows eva­po­ra­tion dur­ing the long cook­ing time.

• al­ways start with cold wa­ter to ex­tract

the most flavour.

• a bare sim­mer is re­quired to ob­tain a clear stock with a fresh flavour. A stock that has been boiled will be murky and of­ten taste greasy.

• use fresh veg­eta­bles, not the wilted, taste­less ones from the back of the fridge. The end re­sult is only as good as the pro­duce with which you started.

• if your stock tastes a bit thin, strain and sim­mer it un­til re­duced to con­cen­trate the flavours.

Be­low are recipes for four ba­sic stocks: chicken, beef, veg­etable and fish. But there are many other types of stock that can be made too. Us­ing a ham bone or smoked ba­con bones will give a lovely smoky stock, per­fect for pea and ham soup.

There are also ex­cel­lent qual­ity fresh stocks avail­able in the chiller sec­tions of most su­per­mar­kets and good food stores. Some have been re­duced to a more con­cen­trated form and are great for pan sauces, while oth­ers are straight stocks. Check the la­bel be­fore buy­ing. These stocks can be in­fused in the same man­ner as a home-made stock.

Shelf sta­ble stocks are great to have on hand in the cup­board and are ideal for tak­ing on hol­i­days and when boating. Do take care when us­ing these stocks for re­duc­tion sauces. Some tend to be quite salty and this is con­cen­trated with cook­ing. Buy pack­ets of re­duced salt or salt-free stocks if pos­si­ble and check that no monosodium glu­ta­mate has been used.

CHICKEN STOCK This is a ba­sic, gen­eral pur­pose white stock.

1½ ki­los chicken bones or car­casses

1 onion, chopped

1 large car­rot, chopped

1 stick cel­ery, chopped

1 leek, sliced

1 bou­quet garni (bay, pars­ley stalks,

sprigs of thyme)

12 whole black pep­per­corns

Wash the chicken in cold wa­ter and drain. Place in a large stock pot along with the re­main­ing in­gre­di­ents and add enough cold wa­ter to cover by 2cm. Bring slowly to a sim­mer and skim off the scum that comes to the sur­face. Re­duce the heat to main­tain a bare sim­mer and cook for ap­prox­i­mately 6 hours, skim­ming when nec­es­sary.

If needed, add ex­tra wa­ter to keep the con­tents cov­ered while cook­ing.

Strain the stock, dis­card­ing the solids and cool rapidly to pre­vent bac­te­ria from form­ing. Plac­ing the bowl of stock in an ice bath in the sink is an ideal way to cool it quickly. Cover and re­frig­er­ate. The fat will so­lid­ify on the sur­face and is easily scraped off with a spoon. Stock will keep in the fridge for up to 3 days or keep frozen for up to 3 months. When freez­ing stock, al­ways put it in us­able sized por­tions of 1–2 cups.

BEEF STOCK Known as a ‘brown stock’ due to the roast­ing of the bones and veg­eta­bles be­fore sim­mer­ing.

1½ ki­los beef bones, chopped (ask your

butcher to cut them into smaller pieces)

1 onion, quar­tered

2 car­rots, roughly chopped

1 leek, thickly sliced

2 stalks cel­ery, roughly chopped

1 head of gar­lic, halved

1 bou­quet garni (bay, pars­ley stalks,

sprigs of thyme)

2 ta­ble­spoons tomato paste

12 whole black pep­per­corns

mush­room trim­mings (op­tional)

Pre­heat the oven to 200°C.

Place the bones in a large roast­ing dish and roast for 30 min­utes. Add all the veg­eta­bles and mix to­gether. Roast for a fur­ther 30 min­utes or un­til the bones are well browned. Trans­fer the bones and veg­eta­bles to a large stock pot. Add the re­main­ing in­gre­di­ents and enough cold wa­ter to cover by 2cm. Sim­mer gen­tly for 6–8 hours, skim­ming when re­quired. Add ex­tra wa­ter when nec­es­sary to keep the bones sub­merged. Strain the stock and dis­card the solids. Cool rapidly and re­frig­er­ate. Re­move the fat from the sur­face and re­frig­er­ate for up to 4 days or freeze for up to 3 months.

FISH STOCK Cook fish stock for only 20 min­utes. Af­ter that the bones start to break down and im­part a bit­ter flavour.

30 grams but­ter

1 onion, sliced

1 small bay leaf

6 whole black pep­per­corns

a few pars­ley stalks

juice of 1 le­mon

1 kilo very fresh white fleshed fish bones,

well washed

2½ litres cold wa­ter

Heat the but­ter in a deep saucepan and add the onion, bay leaf, pep­per­corns, pars­ley stalks, le­mon juice and fish bones. Cover and cook gen­tly for 5 min­utes, tak­ing care not to brown. Add the wa­ter and bring to a sim­mer. Skim and cook gen­tly for 20 min­utes. Strain through a damp, muslin-lined sieve and cool quickly. Re­frig­er­ate and use within 2 days.

VEG­ETABLE STOCK

Veg­etable stocks can be used in place of chicken stock. Be care­ful about adding strong veg­eta­bles like brus­sels sprouts, cab­bage and broc­coli as they can over­power the other flavours and as­para­gus will turn a stock green.

olive oil

1 onion, chopped

1 leek

1 car­rot

1 stick of cel­ery

1 tomato

3–4 mush­rooms

2 cloves gar­lic

2½ litres wa­ter

4 pep­per­corns

pars­ley stalks

1 bay leaf

Heat a lit­tle oil in a large pot and add the veg­eta­bles and gar­lic. Toss, cover and sweat the veg­eta­bles over a low heat for about 10 min­utes, stir­ring oc­ca­sion­ally so as not to let them scorch. Add the wa­ter, pep­per­corns, pars­ley stalks and bay leaf. Bring slowly to the boil, skim­ming as nec­es­sary and sim­mer for 2–3 hours. Cool and strain, press­ing down on the veg­eta­bles to ex­tract max­i­mum flavour. Re­frig­er­ate for 2–3 days or freeze.

PASTA It is best to pur­chase spe­cial flour for pasta. This flour, made from du­rum wheat, is de­scribed as ‘hard’ mean­ing it is high in gluten and will give pasta a good tex­ture and ‘bite’.

300 grams ‘00’ flour

3 eggs

½ tea­spoon sea salt

1 ta­ble­spoon olive oil

By hand: Mound the flour on the bench and make a well in the cen­tre. Put the eggs, salt and oil in the well. Mix the liq­uid in­gre­di­ents to­gether with a fork then grad­u­ally start to in­cor­po­rate the flour from the in­ner rim of the well. Keep push­ing the flour up to re­tain the well shape. When the dough be­comes like a thick bat­ter, start mix­ing the flour and dough to­gether with your hands to form a ball. Knead the dough on a lightly floured bench un­til smooth and start­ing to feel elas­tic, about 4–5 min­utes. Wrap in plas­tic wrap and rest for 30 min­utes.

By ma­chine: Put the dough in­gre­di­ents in a mixer with a dough hook at­tached. When the dough has come to­gether trans­fer to a clean bench and knead for 5 min­utes or un­til silky and smooth. Cover in plas­tic wrap and rest for 30 min­utes.

Di­vide the dough into four pieces. Flat­ten one piece into a rec­tan­gle and dust well with flour. Cover the re­main­ing pasta to pre­vent it dry­ing out. Set the rollers on the pasta ma­chine to the widest set­ting and pass the dough through. Fold into three and pass through the widest set­ting again. Re­peat this process 4 more times. The dough is now ready to be stretched. Move the rollers to the next set­ting. With­out fold­ing it again, pass the dough, three times through the rollers. Catch the dough with the flat palm so as not to tear it. Move the rollers up a notch and re­peat with the pasta un­til you have reached the de­sired thick­ness for the recipe. If the pasta gets too long, cut it in half. Lightly flour the dough be­tween each suc­ces­sive rolling if needed. Cut the pasta as re­quired.

PIZZA DOUGH

2 cups plain flour or ‘00’ flour

1 tea­spoon sugar

1 ta­ble­spoon in­stant dried yeast

1 tea­spoon sea salt

200ml luke­warm wa­ter

2 ta­ble­spoons olive oil

Com­bine all the dry in­gre­di­ents in a large bowl. Mix the wa­ter and oil to­gether and stir into the flour to make a loose dough. Tip onto a lightly floured bench. Dust hands with flour and bring the dough to­gether then knead for a few min­utes un­til it be­comes smooth and elas­tic (try not to add ex­tra flour as the dough will be­come less sticky with knead­ing). Form the dough into a smooth ball and place it in a lightly oiled bowl, turn­ing to coat it all over. Cover with plas­tic wrap and set aside in a warm place un­til dou­bled in size, about 1½ hours.

RISOTTO

knob of but­ter

2 ta­ble­spoons olive oil

1 onion, finely chopped

2 cloves gar­lic, crushed

sea salt and freshly ground pep­per

1 cup risotto rice, such as Ar­bo­rio

½ cup white wine

3–4 cups chicken stock

small knob but­ter

½ cup freshly grated Parme­san cheese

Melt the but­ter with the oil in a sauté pan over a medium heat. Add the onion and gar­lic with a pinch of salt and cook un­til the onion is very ten­der.

Add the rice, stir­ring well to coat each grain in the oil. Cook for another minute un­til the rice is warm (toasted).

Add the wine and stir un­til most of the liq­uid has been ab­sorbed. Be­gin adding the hot stock, a la­dle at a time, stir­ring and al­low­ing the liq­uid to be ab­sorbed be­fore adding the next quan­tity. When the risotto is ten­der to the bite and has a creamy con­sis­tency, af­ter about 20 min­utes, add the but­ter and Parme­san and stir to com­bine. Sea­son well and serve. Serves 4

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