Notes for cooks
To ensure successful results in cooking, we recommend you invest in accurate measuring tools – measuring cups and spoons and a measuring jug are essential and electronic scales are particularly useful as they weigh accurately in both imperial and metric. Always follow one set of measures in a recipe. Do not mix them up.
• A fan forced oven unless otherwise
• Large eggs (No.7)
• Level spoons and cup measurements
• Liquids are always measured in a jug and
dry ingredients in measuring cups.
NB: One tablespoon is 15ml (the Australian tablespoon is 20ml)
Useful ingredient equivalents
BREADCRUMBS 1 cup fresh = 50 grams 1 cup dried = 115 grams
1 (American) stick = 100 grams 1 cup = 225 grams 2 tablespoons = 30 grams
1 cup grated tasty = 115 grams 1 cup Parmesan = 150 grams
Large (No. 7) egg white = 30 grams
1 level measuring cup = 150 grams
3 teaspoons granulated/3 leaves (gold grade) will set 500mls/2 cups liquid to a light jelly. 1 rounded tablespoon granulated/4–5 leaves (gold grade) will set 500mls/2 cups liquid to a firm jelly.leaf gelatine comes in varying grades. It is wise to check the setting properties of the leaf gelatine you buy before use.
HONEY, GOLDEN SYRUP
1 cup = 350 grams
1 x 115 gram onion = 1 cup chopped
1 cup uncooked rice = 200 grams 1 cup cooked = 165 grams
1 cup caster and granulated = 225 grams 1 cup brown sugar = 200 grams 1 cup icing sugar = 125 grams
650 grams spinach leaves = ¾ cup purée
2 tablespoons fresh (compressed) = 1 tablespoon dried (granulated)
225° Fahrenheit = 110° Celsius = cool oven
300° Fahrenheit = 150° Celsius = very low oven
350° Fahrenheit = 180° Celsius = moderate oven
400° Fahrenheit = 200° Celsius = hot oven
450° Fahrenheit = 230° Celsius = very hot oven
1 level teaspoon = 5mls
1 level tablespoon = 15mls
1 oz/fl oz = 28.35 grams/mls
1 pound = 450 grams
1 cup liquid = 250mls
1 pint = 600mls
1 litre = 1000mls
10 grams = ¼oz
15 grams = ½oz
25 grams = 1oz (actual 28.35 grams)
450 grams = 1 pound
1 kilogram = 2¼ pounds
1cm = ½ inch
2.5cm = 1 inch
12cm = 4½ inches
20cm = 8 inches
24cm = 9½ inches
30cm = 12 inches
Bake blind: line a prepared pastry case with baking paper and fill with pie weights or dried beans. The beans support the pastry as it cooks. Bake in a preheated 190°C–200°C oven for up to 20 minutes before removing the paper and weights. The shell should now have taken form.
Return to the oven for the time specified in the recipe.
Braise: a method of slow cooking meat where the meat is first browned and then cooked with liquid in a covered casserole at a low temperature until it is meltingly tender.
Brine: this produces succulent, juicy meat and helps keep it moist during cooking. A variety of herbs and spices can be added for flavour, and beer and cider are sometimes used. Put ¼ cup of sea salt, ⅓ cup brown sugar, 2 bay leaves and 1 cup of water in a saucepan. Bring to the boil, stirring to dissolve the salt and sugar. Cool. Put the poultry or pork in a container large enough that it can be submerged in brine. Pour in the brine, adding enough cold water to totally cover it. Put a plate on top to keep it under the brine. Cover and refrigerate for at least two hours and up to 12 hours.
Julienne: this term refers to food, often vegetables, sliced into thin matchsticks. This is most easily done using a mandolin but can also be done by hand. First cut into 3mm ( /8- inch) thick slices. Stack the slices
1 and cut into 3mm ( /8- inch) thick strips. Cut
1 into desired length.
Reduce: to boil a liquid (often stock, wine or a sauce) rapidly until the volume is reduced by evaporation, thereby thickening the consistency and intensifying the flavour.
Roast capsicums: place the capsicum on a tray and roast in a preheated 200°C oven until tender but not collapsing. When cool, peel and remove the seeds.
Roast nuts: spread the nuts out in a single layer on a shallow baking pan and place in a preheated 180°C oven. Shake the pan every few minutes until the nuts are golden. Watch carefully as the nuts can become too brown very quickly. Remove and tip into another dish to cool.
Toast and grind seeds and spices: heat a small dry pan over a medium heat. Add the spice and toss until fragrant and just starting to darken in colour.
Toast one spice at a time rather than combining, as each spice will take a different time to toast. Tip out onto a plate and cool. Grind using a mortar and pestle or a small coffee grinder, reserved for the purpose.
Be very careful not to burn as this will make them bitter.