Kitchen notes

Dish - Everyday Dish - - Contents -

Notes for cooks

To en­sure suc­cess­ful re­sults in cook­ing, we rec­om­mend you in­vest in ac­cu­rate mea­sur­ing tools – mea­sur­ing cups and spoons and a mea­sur­ing jug are es­sen­tial and elec­tronic scales are par­tic­u­larly use­ful as they weigh ac­cu­rately in both im­pe­rial and met­ric. Al­ways fol­low one set of mea­sures in a recipe. Do not mix them up.


• A fan forced oven un­less oth­er­wise


• Large eggs (No.7)

• Level spoons and cup mea­sure­ments

• Liq­uids are al­ways mea­sured in a jug and

dry in­gre­di­ents in mea­sur­ing cups.

NB: One ta­ble­spoon is 15ml (the Aus­tralian ta­ble­spoon is 20ml)

Use­ful in­gre­di­ent equiv­a­lents

BREAD­CRUMBS 1 cup fresh = 50 grams 1 cup dried = 115 grams


1 (Amer­i­can) stick = 100 grams 1 cup = 225 grams 2 ta­ble­spoons = 30 grams


1 cup grated tasty = 115 grams 1 cup Parme­san = 150 grams


Large (No. 7) egg white = 30 grams


1 level mea­sur­ing cup = 150 grams


3 tea­spoons gran­u­lated/3 leaves (gold grade) will set 500mls/2 cups liq­uid to a light jelly. 1 rounded ta­ble­spoon gran­u­lated/4–5 leaves (gold grade) will set 500mls/2 cups liq­uid to a firm jelly.leaf gela­tine comes in vary­ing grades. It is wise to check the set­ting prop­er­ties of the leaf gela­tine you buy be­fore use.


1 cup = 350 grams


1 x 115 gram onion = 1 cup chopped


1 cup un­cooked rice = 200 grams 1 cup cooked = 165 grams


1 cup caster and gran­u­lated = 225 grams 1 cup brown sugar = 200 grams 1 cup ic­ing sugar = 125 grams


650 grams spinach leaves = ¾ cup purée


2 ta­ble­spoons fresh (com­pressed) = 1 ta­ble­spoon dried (gran­u­lated)


225° Fahren­heit = 110° Cel­sius = cool oven

300° Fahren­heit = 150° Cel­sius = very low oven

350° Fahren­heit = 180° Cel­sius = mod­er­ate oven

400° Fahren­heit = 200° Cel­sius = hot oven

450° Fahren­heit = 230° Cel­sius = very hot oven


1 level tea­spoon = 5mls

1 level ta­ble­spoon = 15mls

1 oz/fl oz = 28.35 grams/mls

1 pound = 450 grams

1 cup liq­uid = 250mls

1 pint = 600mls

1 litre = 1000mls


10 grams = ¼oz

15 grams = ½oz

25 grams = 1oz (ac­tual 28.35 grams)

450 grams = 1 pound

1 kilo­gram = 2¼ pounds


1cm = ½ inch

2.5cm = 1 inch

12cm = 4½ inches

20cm = 8 inches

24cm = 9½ inches

30cm = 12 inches

Use­ful tech­niques

Bake blind: line a pre­pared pas­try case with bak­ing pa­per and fill with pie weights or dried beans. The beans sup­port the pas­try as it cooks. Bake in a pre­heated 190°C–200°C oven for up to 20 min­utes be­fore re­mov­ing the pa­per and weights. The shell should now have taken form.

Re­turn to the oven for the time spec­i­fied in the recipe.

Braise: a method of slow cook­ing meat where the meat is first browned and then cooked with liq­uid in a cov­ered casse­role at a low tem­per­a­ture un­til it is melt­ingly ten­der.

Brine: this pro­duces suc­cu­lent, juicy meat and helps keep it moist dur­ing cook­ing. A va­ri­ety of herbs and spices can be added for flavour, and beer and cider are some­times used. Put ¼ cup of sea salt, ⅓ cup brown sugar, 2 bay leaves and 1 cup of wa­ter in a saucepan. Bring to the boil, stir­ring to dis­solve the salt and sugar. Cool. Put the poul­try or pork in a con­tainer large enough that it can be sub­merged in brine. Pour in the brine, adding enough cold wa­ter to to­tally cover it. Put a plate on top to keep it un­der the brine. Cover and re­frig­er­ate for at least two hours and up to 12 hours.

Julienne: this term refers to food, of­ten veg­eta­bles, sliced into thin match­sticks. This is most easily done us­ing a man­dolin but can also be done by hand. First cut into 3mm ( /8- inch) thick slices. Stack the slices

1 and cut into 3mm ( /8- inch) thick strips. Cut

1 into de­sired length.

Re­duce: to boil a liq­uid (of­ten stock, wine or a sauce) rapidly un­til the vol­ume is re­duced by eva­po­ra­tion, thereby thick­en­ing the con­sis­tency and in­ten­si­fy­ing the flavour.

Roast cap­sicums: place the cap­sicum on a tray and roast in a pre­heated 200°C oven un­til ten­der but not col­laps­ing. When cool, peel and re­move the seeds.

Roast nuts: spread the nuts out in a sin­gle layer on a shal­low bak­ing pan and place in a pre­heated 180°C oven. Shake the pan ev­ery few min­utes un­til the nuts are golden. Watch care­fully as the nuts can be­come too brown very quickly. Re­move and tip into another dish to cool.

Toast and grind seeds and spices: heat a small dry pan over a medium heat. Add the spice and toss un­til fra­grant and just start­ing to darken in colour.

Toast one spice at a time rather than com­bin­ing, as each spice will take a dif­fer­ent time to toast. Tip out onto a plate and cool. Grind us­ing a mor­tar and pes­tle or a small cof­fee grinder, re­served for the pur­pose.

Be very care­ful not to burn as this will make them bit­ter.

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