The best op­tions, in terms of costs, health and en­vi­ron­men­tal ef­fects are

Element - - Living -

Ra­di­ant heaters: • Wood­burner (10 – 11c/kwh) • Pel­let burner (13 – 19c/kwh) • Convection heater: • Heat pump (5 – 9c/kwh)

Less ben­e­fi­cial are

• Flued nat­u­ral gas heaters, which ra­di­ate heat but cre­ate

green­house gas emis­sions • Elec­tric heaters, which cre­ate ra­di­at­ing heat

but are only use­ful in small spa­ces. The least ben­e­fi­cial ones, which are also among the most ex­pen­sive, are: • Un­flued LPG heaters, which cre­ate un­healthy liv­ing

en­vi­ron­ments and • Open fires with an ef­fi­ciency rate as low as 15%.

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