AFMA Con­fer­ence

Fleet man­age­ment re­quires knowl­edge, col­lab­o­ra­tion and lead­er­ship to have an ef­fec­tive, safe and ef­fi­cient fleet. Cathy Parker re­ports.

New Zealand Company Vehicle - - CONTENTS -

The an­nual AFMA (Aus­tralasian Fleet Man­agers As­so­ci­a­tion) con­fer­ence held in the Melbourne Con­ven­tion Cen­tre just keeps growing; it is now two full days with a va­ri­ety of break­out ses­sions and a fairly com­pre­hen­sive ex­hi­bi­tion show­cas­ing some new ve­hi­cles in­clud­ing Toy­ota’s Mi­rai Fuel cell car and Hyundai’s IX35 Fuel Cell car and a range of fleet ser­vices. This year’s event had par­tic­u­lar em­pha­sis on safety and low emis­sions ve­hi­cle strate­gies along with some more gen­eral top­ics such as the new lease ac­count­ing stan­dards, fleet man­age­ment sys­tems and fit-out. Safety top­ics in­cluded such al­lur­ing ses­sions as Sit­u­a­tion nor­mal until some­one dies, Does your drug and al­co­hol pol­icy stack up, Driver dis­trac­tion – Busy brain syn­drome, Mak­ing safety a num­ber one pri­or­ity, data is the key to a safer, lower cost fleet and Not all five Star ANCAP ve­hi­cles are cre­ated equal. Low emis­sions cov­ered Ex­plor­ing EV ve­hi­cles and charg­ing sta­tions, the art of ve­hi­cle resid­u­als and low emis­sion ve­hi­cles and re­mar­ket­ing, Why are low emis­sion ve­hi­cles im­por­tant and what’s hold­ing Aus­tralia back, Low emis­sion ve­hi­cles an up­date from Amer­ica/europe and Aus­tralia and Man­ag­ing tran­si­tion to a lower cost and lower emis­sions fleet. Some of the more in­ter­est­ing take-outs in­cluded:

Sit­u­a­tion nor­mal until some­one dies

Stu­art Mc­gre­gor from the ma­jor col­li­sion unit of Vic­to­ria po­lice – They use a Swiss cheese ac­ci­dent model where a mis­take or er­ror is like a hole in a slice of Swiss cheese – one won’t nor­mally cre­ate an ac­ci­dent on it’s own as there are other lay­ers of cheese but if you get two or three fac­tors where the ”holes” align then bang! He used the NZTA ad where a ve­hi­cle pulls through a Give Way sign and is hit by a car – in slow mo­tion where they talk to each other as an il­lus­tra­tion (com­bi­na­tion of not giv­ing way, inat­ten­tion and the sec­ond ve­hi­cle speed­ing) He also pointed out that ac­ci­dents in the metro area ran at about 2-8 per 1000,000 km but were 10 in the coun­try with higher speeds and bad roads plus the cheer­ing fact that of 262 fa­tal­i­ties last year 30 were not wear­ing seat belts. Ross Clay­ton, a se­nior in­ves­ti­ga­tor for Work­safe, talked about the need for re­al­is­tic sched­ul­ing to avoid stress/tired­ness/speed­ing and flex­i­bil­ity around overnight stays and in­sist­ing driv­ers stay rather than at­tempt to drive home.

Not all star-star ANCAP ve­hi­cles are cre­ated equal

2018 will see the align­ing of ANCAP and EURONCAP, it also sees an in­creas­ing fo­cus on ac­tive col­li­sion avoid­ance tech­nolo­gies which will be needed to achieve five stars. As an ex­am­ple AEB (Au­ton­o­mous Emer­gency brak­ing) re­sults in a re­duc­tion of 38 per­cent in real world rear end crashes in city con­di­tions. The re­quire­ments for five stars are con­stantly in­creas­ing so it was pointed out that as well as the rat­ing com­pa­nies need to look at the date stamp (when tested) – for fleets it was sug­gested that a date stamp of three years old or less would be a good pol­icy for new ve­hi­cle pur­chases. In Aus­tralia ve­hi­cles older than 2000 make up 20 per­cent of the fleet but ac­count for 35 per­cent of fa­tal­i­ties, whereas ve­hi­cles newer than 2011 make up 31 per­cent of the fleet and only 13 per­cent of fa­tal­i­ties show­ing the ad­vance in ve­hi­cle safety. In 2016 95 per­cent of the ve­hi­cles tested for ANCAP re­ceived five stars.

Low emis­sions and EV’S

Started with a quick re­cap on the physics of petrol en­gines and com­bus­tion, with com­plete com­bus­tion and at nor­mal con­di­tions 1kg of fuel and 3.5kg of oxy­gen com­bine to pro­duce 3.1kg of CO2 and1.4kg of wa­ter (plus power). In reality the ideal is never achieved and there are a va­ri­ety of byprod­ucts – if the mix­ture is over rich car­bon nano-par­ti­cles (C) and un­burnt Hy­dro­car­bons (HC) and if un­der rich Ox­ides of Nitro­gen. En­gine ef­fi­cien­cies have im­proved from around 18 per­cent to mid 20’s range. World­wide en­ergy use is around 15 TW but we get 20,000 times that from the sun per day so so­lar has po­ten­tial to ul­ti­mately be a great clean re­new­able en­ergy re­source. The in­cen­tive programmes used in sev­eral EU coun­tries were cov­ered, with the ex­cep­tion of Nor­way most have had is­sues with un­in­tended con­se­quences and reg­u­lar tin­ker­ing which has af­fected their ef­fec­tive­ness, Nor­way how­ever has achieved 41 per­cent EV pen­e­tra­tion in fleets and 56 per­cent in pri­vate sales with zero VAT on pur­chase and lease costs, bus lane use with two peo­ple, free park­ing and free fer­ries. An­other in­ter­est­ing trend was a move by some ma­jor cities to pro­gres­sively ban dirt­ier cars so Euro 4 from a cer­tain date, then Euro 5, Paris will ban all diesel cars from 2020.

Real world con­sump­tion and emis­sions

There is a growing con­cern around the di­ver­gence of econ­omy re­ported in stan­dard­ised test vs ac­tual re­sults, even with­out the ac­knowl­edged cheat­ing by some com­pa­nies. This is pri­mar­ily be­cause the tests in­cen­tivise man­u­fac­tur­ers to tune ve­hi­cles to min­imise CO2 emis­sions op­ti­mised to the test cy­cle which per­versely can in­crease then in real world con­di­tions which don’t match the test cy­cle. In 2002 the vari­ance was around 10 per­cent but by 2014 was 35 per­cent and it is es­ti­mated could be 50 per­cent by 2020. A new WLTC test cy­cle is be­ing in­tro­duced in 2020 but even with that it is es­ti­mated there will still be a 23 per­cent vari­ance with real world. Aus­tralian test­ing by ABMARC showed about a 25 per­cent dif­fer­ence over a range of ve­hi­cles with one model hav­ing 60 per­cent higher con­sump­tion, test CO2 was ex­ceeded by 20 per­cent of petrol ve­hi­cles and NOX by 83 per­cent of diesel ve­hi­cles tested.

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