Key to pro­duc­tiv­ity in 2018

The Orchardist - - Kiwifruit Winter Pruning - By Ruth Un­der­wood

A high pro­por­tion of ki­wifruit flow­ers sur­vive through the sea­son to har­vest. This makes it rel­a­tively easy to quan­tify the amount of fruit­ing wood you need to bear your tar­get crop.

Fruit is car­ried on ‘cur­rent’ sea­sons wood, that grows from wood that grew dur­ing the past sea­son. In win­ter, you are lay­ing down the wood that will pro­duce new shoots next spring that carry the fruit.

Wood that grew for the full pre­vi­ous sea­son tends to pro­duce the most flow­ers. Only the first flush of shoots each sea­son car­ries flow­ers, so see­ing stalks from re­cently picked fruit is a good in­di­ca­tor of ma­ture wood. The less suit­able late-grown wood tends to be stalk-less and greener in colour.

Good sun ex­po­sure is an­other in­di­ca­tor of qual­ity fruit­ing wood, which will de­pend on how open the canopy was through the last sea­son.

Lower vigour wood has the buds closer to­gether. Mod­er­ate vigour wood is usu­ally most suit­able at win­ter prun­ing as it has a rea­son­able length, help­ing you to fill the canopy, and plenty of prom­i­nent buds, close to­gether, en­cour­ag­ing good flower pro­duc­tion.

Use in­for­ma­tion from har­vest and pre­vi­ous sea­sons to guide

your prun­ing.

Set a re­al­is­tic yield tar­get and al­low for losses through the sea­son in­clud­ing spring flower abor­tion and thin­ning off re­jects. Fig­ures from pre­vi­ous sea­sons mon­i­tor­ing are a use­ful guide. You can work back from your tar­geted yield to num­bers of flow­ers re­quired in spring. To con­vert those to quan­tity of wood at win­ter prun­ing, a key ra­tio

is flow­ers per win­ter bud. In a poor sea­son this can be 0.8-1 on Hay­ward; whereas in a good sea­son there may be around 2 flow­ers per win­ter bud. Know­ing typ­i­cal fig­ures for your va­ri­ety and or­chard is a great help when set­ting up your win­ter prun­ing. Tar­get fruit size is an im­por­tant fac­tor as large fruit size in­creases trays pro­duced and vice versa. Be­cause we are prun­ing be­fore we know key fac­tors like how cold the win­ter will be and how warm or ‘de­ci­sive’ the spring will be we need to build in a mar­gin for vari­abil­ity.

It's a com­pro­mise! As­sum­ing ev­ery­thing will go well for the rest of the sea­son means you're at risk of pro­duc­ing be­low po­ten­tial from nor­mal sea­sonal vari­a­tions. If you are too con­ser­va­tive, you can tip be­yond hav­ing good con­trol of pro­duc­tion to po­ten­tially hav­ing a dif­fi­cult vine canopy and high pro­duc­tion costs.

As the win­ter pro­gresses, you can re­fine tar­gets a bit as you gauge what the win­ter chill­ing has been like. Re­mem­ber though that win­ter chill­ing is not the whole pic­ture for flower pro­duc­tion.

If you have cov­ered blocks in your or­chard, you will be build­ing up in­for­ma­tion about the flower to win­ter bud re­sults and fur­ther losses dur­ing the sea­son. Be­ing sig­nif­i­cantly warmer

through the win­ter will re­duce win­ter chill but a warm spring is hugely ben­e­fi­cial and should re­sult in bet­ter re­ten­tion of the flow­ers pro­duced. You need to be con­ser­va­tive while you build up your in­for­ma­tion about the im­pact of cov­ers but can fine-tune prun­ing as you de­velop records from a range of dif­fer­ent win­ter and spring con­di­tions.

Work your pro­duc­tion tar­gets back to win­ter buds re­quired per square me­tre of fe­male or­chard canopy, by tak­ing off the pro­por­tion of the or­chard in male-vine canopy. When it comes to do­ing the ac­tual prun­ing, you'll need a sim­ple work­ing ver­sion such as 'canes ev­ery 30cm on the third wire' or '15 canes per side per bay' to work with. Work­ing to buds

per square me­tre is more ap­pro­pri­ate when us­ing lots of older wood where the win­ter buds are borne on spurs and short canes.

Fruit pay­ment in­cen­tives re­ward good per­for­mance and re­duced vari­abil­ity. Hav­ing the canopy more even across the or­chard starts with even win­ter prun­ing.

When trans­lat­ing your tar­gets to win­ter buds per square me­tre or canes per bay, the tar­get needs to be ad­justed if bays dif­fer. Male vine lay­out can create a key dif­fer­ence between bays. Some male vine ar­range­ments create 2 types of bays – those with some of the area oc­cu­pied by male vines and those that are all fe­male canopy. Bays with only fe­male canopy need a lit­tle more fruit­ing wood to off­set the re­duced fruit­ing canopy in bays part-oc­cu­pied by male vines. Other­wise, you may be cre­at­ing un-even­ness within the or­chard or lim­it­ing your over­all crop if the tar­gets were worked out for the fe­male bays then just less wood tied down in the male bays.

Spread­ing fruit­ing wood well across each bay helps pro­duc­tion and qual­ity. Ev­ery bay with be­low-tar­get quan­ti­ties of wood re­duces your po­ten­tial crop and abil­ity to ad­just to sea­sonal con­di­tions. Un­even­ness between bays re­duces the ef­fi­ciency of your sun­light cap­ture by crowd­ing some bays and un­der fill­ing others.

If you have vine re­struc­tur­ing to do, don't do it all in one sea­son and re­duce your pro­duc­tion. Time and time again, I see vines where there have been sig­nif­i­cant cuts made that have re­duced the crop be­low tar­get po­ten­tial. Peo­ple say: “Vines have been given a good tidy up”; “it had to be done and vines will be in bet­ter or­der for next sea­son”. They will be ti­dier but you may be rue­ing the lower yields driv­ing your in­come over the next two years! Re­struc­tur­ing can be suc­cess­fully spread over 2-4 years whilst main­tain­ing po­ten­tial pro­duc­tiv­ity and in­come.

You can fill in gaps with tem­po­rary fixes: train an oc­ca­sional cane par­al­lel to the vine leader if you are short of fruit­ing wood close to the leader; bring a cane across from the other side of the vine to fill a gap; keep older wood where there are some good spurs on it that will fruit the next sea­son. You can’t take these mea­sures too far or you have chaos, un­man­age­able sum­mer growth and po­ten­tial is­sues with dense canopy, dis­ease and poor pol­li­na­tion.

Re­view male vine size and po­si­tion­ing be­fore you start prun­ing so you can ben­e­fit from any changes as soon as pos­si­ble. You may be able to re­duce the size of ex­ist­ing male vines and tie fe­male wood into their place. Keep­ing the male rows nar­row is es­pe­cially im­por­tant in a strip male or­chard with nar­row row spac­ing. Broad male vines can be oc­cu­py­ing 20-25% of the or­chard area with no gain in pol­li­na­tion– just re­duced pro­duc­tion.

Con­sider whether a hang­ing cur­tain op­po­site male vines is worth­while for you. These miss out on a bit on sun­light so may be lower dry mat­ter fruit but can be a sig­nif­i­cant pro­duc­tion boost if you can keep the males well-trimmed and don’t bash all the fruit driv­ing through the block.

Sim­i­larly, skirts at the edges of blocks pro­vide use­ful pro­duc­tion if there is room for them and the fruit is well pol­li­nated. Hav­ing male vines in the out­side row helps or tim­ing sup­ple­men­tary pol­li­na­tion for these rows if they are a lit­tle later to flower.

Sick vines need to be tracked and dealt with. Train­ing in a longer leader from a neigh­bour­ing healthy vine is a use­ful way to fill in a gap. If re­plac­ing the vine, add a gen­er­ous amount of com­post to the plant­ing hole, es­pe­cially if the block isn't ir­ri­gated. If you have Ar­mil­laria, sluic­ing is a suc­cess­ful treat­ment al­though you may want to do this later in the au­tumn or win­ter when the soil has cleared the ex­ces­sive April rain­fall.

If you’ve car­ried much of the crop on weak spurs on twoyear old wood, you may be hav­ing trou­ble fill­ing up your or­chard canopy. First check if there is some un­der­ly­ing is­sue like roots be­ing wa­ter-logged, wind ex­po­sure or Ar­mil­laria that is hold­ing back these vines. Fix that if you can.

In a canopy that isn’t strung, con­sider set­ting up strings just for the ar­eas where canopy de­vel­op­ment is lag­ging. This ex­ploits the vines nat­u­ral growth habit of strongly grow­ing up­wards and it will be close to the leader so make good fruit­ing wood for you in fu­ture sea­sons.

Other­wise, en­sure you make most cuts where you want to stim­u­late re­growth and not where you don’t want it. You don’t want to get into a sit­u­a­tion where each year your best wood grows so far from the leader that you mostly re­move it. You are likely best leav­ing win­ter wood with new growth some dis­tance from the leader and cut­ting a neigh­bour­ing cane near to the leader to stim­u­late re­growth there.

Time spent train­ing young vines is sel­dom wasted – this can in­clude se­lect­ing a bet­ter trunk or leader than the one trained in al­ready. Watch for tapes or ties stran­gling per­ma­nent wood – the trunks or lead­ers – and re­move them.

How do you make the tran­si­tion from a young-vine canopy where you ‘keep ev­ery­thing and just ar­range it as best you can’ to an or­derly canopy where there is enough fruit­ing wood to re­new a good pro­por­tion of it each year? Com­pro­mise! Make some of the hard cuts but leave enough wood to make your tar­get even if it is not the wood you really want.

All prun­ing cre­ates a dis­ease en­try site so en­sure cov­er­age with pre­ven­ta­tive sprays fits around your prun­ing and aim to prune dry vines in fine weather as much as prac­ti­cal. Larger cuts should be pro­tected, with smaller sizes treated if you have to work in less favourable weather. Clean prun­ing equip­ment reg­u­larly and mark dis­ease cankers for hy­gienic re­moval.

Ty­ing down is a big part of the suc­cess of the whole win­ter prun­ing job. Vines left with the right quan­tity of wood and cuts made in the right places need to be tied down with the cane as evenly spaced as pos­si­ble to make best ad­van­tage of the sun­light that will be cap­tured by the leaves.

Break­ages may well oc­cur at ty­ing down – made worse if there is ci­cada-dam­age to canes or when ty­ing down on frosty morn­ings. Ty­ing as you go helps to as­sess whether you are get­ting the in­tended num­bers ac­tu­ally tied into bays – you may need to leave 1-2 canes more per bay at prun­ing if there's a sig­nif­i­cant num­ber of break­ages. Watch also that any cuts made to the ends of canes at ty­ing down are ap­pro­pri­ate as short­en­ing each cane can put your bud num­bers be­hind tar­get and it of­ten re­moves closely-spaced buds.

Where you just don’t have the num­bers you want, still space canes fur­ther apart even if they ra­di­ate from the leader rather than be­ing ar­ranged at right an­gles to it. They will cap­ture

more sun­light, need less sum­mer work and may help to lift wind above the canopy too.

It’s the ty­ing down that also makes your ‘fixes’ work – those canes left to fill in the area around the leader only do that if they’re tied into the right place! Other­wise, they just clut­ter and don’t cap­ture the ad­di­tional light and space you in­tended.

If you are graft­ing to a new va­ri­ety this win­ter you’ve prob­a­bly al­ready de­cided your strat­egy. You need to create light and space for the new graft to grow and tend it well through the sea­son. Some grow­ers have had good suc­cess notch-graft­ing so pro­duc­ing one more crop while the new va­ri­ety gets es­tab­lished. How­ever, done badly, both crops can suf­fer.

If you are notch graft­ing, I'd aim to graft quite high on the trunk so you have more ma­ture root­stock trunk avail­able for girdling or fu­ture va­ri­ety changes. The ex­cep­tion to this is if you are re­mov­ing Hort 16A and need the graft low enough to re­move all that va­ri­ety.

Also don’t ne­glect the parts of the or­chard stay­ing as they are – they are the ar­eas pro­vid­ing the cash flow while you get back to full pro­duc­tion! There will be flow-on im­pacts from the wet au­tumn in 2017. The most se­vere ef­fects are on those or­chard ar­eas where the vine root sys­tems were flooded for sev­eral days. Even where vines and sup­port struc­tures have come through the flood­ing in­tact, these vines will have suf­fered from lack of air in their root zone. Ki­wifruit are es­pe­cially sen­si­tive to this.

There will also be ef­fects on small ar­eas in many or­chards like where vines in a dip suf­fered root zone wa­ter­log­ging. Some of the vines I’ve seen had browned leaves on their re­place­ment canes within a cou­ple of weeks as a re­sult of the wa­ter­log­ging. Im­pacts are likely to con­tinue to show up in the spring, as poor or de­layed bud­break, poor spring growth and small fruit size. Strate­gies you can use to help vines re­cover in­clude:

Avoid send­ing heavy ma­chin­ery through af­fected ar­eas, es­pe­cially while the soil is still wet. This weight will fur­ther com­pact the soil while it is in a sen­si­tive state, re­duc­ing soil aer­a­tion for longer. If you have to take gear in there, stick to ex­ist­ing wheel tracks and re­duce weight where pos­si­ble – such as by do­ing that area to­wards the end of a tank of spray when there is less weight.

• Omit Acti­gardTM on these vines as the de­fen­sive-re­sponse

it gen­er­ates in the vines may fur­ther stress them.

Clear silt from around the vine trunks so it doesn’t create a crust that fur­ther blocks air from get­ting into the soil.

• Add a gen­er­ous amount of or­ganic mat­ter around the vines in the af­fected area – but not touch­ing the trunks - this pro­vides good ma­te­rial for new roots to grow in which will help the vine to re­cover.

If wa­ter col­lected from pond­ing or run-off, adding lo­cal drainage or clear­ing ex­ist­ing drainage path­ways can help. Where pos­si­ble di­vert run-off from ar­eas like tracks away from the vines into tol­er­ant ar­eas.

Re­strict the cropload on vines in af­fected ar­eas for the 2017/18 sea­son. The vines need leaf area to help the roots to re­cover so don’t do this by harshly win­ter prun­ing the vines. They have re­duced crop­ping ca­pac­ity while they re­cover, so thin flower­buds early in spring back to a low or mod­er­ate crop load.

If you have strings, train shoots onto them early in spring and keep go­ing back to direct growth up the strings – you might need to do this as of­ten as weekly dur­ing rapid pe­ri­ods of growth.

Make flower counts in spring as soon as you can be con­fi­dent the buds you will count are un­likely to abort.

If you have ex­ces­sive flower num­bers so a big thin­ning job – you can help con­tain costs and still im­prove the rel­a­tive leaf area by tweak­ing off whole shoots that have weak growth and many flow­ers.

In sum­mary, win­ter prun­ing by choos­ing enough suit­able wood to ac­com­mo­date a range of grow­ing sea­son con­di­tions, tied down well, is key to good ki­wifruit or­chard pro­duc­tiv­ity in 2018.

In most sit­u­a­tions, fruit pack­ing will not be fin­ished for an­other cou­ple of months and the prices re­ceived for the crop maybe four to six months away. Gross pro­duc­tion, usu­ally ex­pressed as bins har­vested, should al­ready be known on a va­ri­ety by block ba­sis so it is pos­si­ble to rank block and va­ri­ety per­for­mance.

While not all of the fruit is packed, a sub­stan­tial pro­por­tion of most va­ri­eties will have al­ready been packed, so this should

give a rea­son­able in­di­ca­tion of how well the crop is likely to pack out. Bay. This de­layed bud break and prob­a­bly also com­pressed it. There was fur­ther heavy rain in the pre­flow­er­ing pe­riod which meant that by the fruit­set pe­riod some blocks on heav­ier soils or ad­ja­cent to rivers, had rather wet soils. We believe these wet soils ad­versely af­fected fruit­set in some places.

From the end of Septem­ber un­til the sec­ond week in Fe­bru­ary, very lit­tle rain oc­curred giv­ing ideal weather con­di­tions for grow­ing high qual­ity fruit. Tem­per­a­tures dur­ing the first 50 days after full bloom were above nor­mal so con­di­tions were ideal for fruit­let growth. High tem­per­a­tures above 30°C around the end of Novem­ber caused some sun­burn which later turned to rus­set. Later high tem­per­a­tures dur­ing De­cem­ber and Jan­uary, when there were a num­ber of days with max­i­mum tem­per­a­tures above 30°C had less ef­fect on sun­burn than we would nor­mally ex­pect from these tem­per­a­tures. High tem­per­a­tures gen­er­ally came with a lot of wind which we think main­tained fruit sur­face tem­per­a­tures near am­bi­ent air tem­per­a­ture and this as well as the long pe­riod of sunny weather that pre­ceded this hot weather con­di­tioned the fruit to the heat and was prob­a­bly re­spon­si­ble for the rel­a­tive lack of sun­burn is­sues.

Al­though the sum­mer was warm and dry, there were good di­ur­nal tem­per­a­ture regimes as we ran into har­vest so fruit colour on the early va­ri­eties was very good. With this good colour pack­outs have been very good with many lines pack­ing 90% or more Grade 1 ex­port.

Since it started rain­ing in early Fe­bru­ary, some parts of Hawke’s Bay will have had over 300mm, al­most twice the nor­mal rain­fall for this pe­riod mak­ing for very chal­leng­ing har­vest­ing con­di­tions. It has also meant a lot of cloudy weather with warm nights so get­ting colour into the later va­ri­eties has been a chal­lenge.

As with the wind ear­lier on in the sea­son, the wet con­di­tions have lead to fur­ther in­stances of trel­lis fail­ure, so as men­tioned last month, sup­port trel­lis re­pair and main­te­nance will take fairly high pri­or­ity once the crop is off.

Har­vest­ing in wet con­di­tions cre­ates a lot of mud through the or­chard. With high yields, many or­chard blocks are har­vest­ing between 200 and 250 bins per hectare.

This rep­re­sents between seven and nine bins per 100m of row length for or­chards planted at 3.5m between rows.

Most or­chards use heavy trac­tors with bin forks to shift bins which means dou­ble han­dling of the bins, so you are look­ing at some­thing like 14 to 18 trac­tor trips in and out of each 100m of row. This does not take long to create a quagmire, not to men­tion the com­paction prob­lems this level of heavy traf­fic will cause on wet soils.

Sev­eral large or­chard prop­er­ties here have be­gun har­vest­ing into bins car­ried on a train of trail­ers pulled by light weight trac­tors. As the “bin train” usu­ally con­sists of four or five bins this means only a cou­ple of trips down each row so there is hardly any sig­nif­i­cant dam­age to the or­chard floor com­pared to bins han­dled in­di­vid­u­ally by trac­tors with forks. An­other ma­jor ad­van­tage of the trail­ers is that the bins do not come in con­tact with the or­chard floor so are free of mud.

Mud can be­come a real prob­lem when bins are be­ing moved around by trac­tors and forks. Muddy bins also rep­re­sent se­ri­ous risk fac­tors for post har­vest rots.

The wet au­tumn has been ideal for ram­pant weed growth. Ag­gres­sive grasses such as pas­palum, as well as sim­i­lar broadleaf weeds, eg mal­low, have flour­ished this au­tumn. Some mal­low have taken on the ap­pear­ance of small shrubs with woody stems. Once weeds of this type get out of con­trol, they are no longer easy to con­trol.

Gen­er­ally, I am not keen on post har­vest her­bi­cide clean up sprays be­cause I like to main­tain good soil cover over the win­ter. Also, where or­chards are be­ing grazed by sheep, these an­i­mals do a pretty good job of deal­ing to the weeds.

Graz­ing re­cently planted or­chards is not ad­vis­able due to the po­ten­tial dam­age they may do to trees un­less the graz­ing is very well su­per­vised. With the amount of hard to con­trol weeds that are thriv­ing in or­chards this year, ap­ply­ing a good post har­vest her­bi­cide is prob­a­bly a good idea. It is much eas­ier to con­trol these dif­fi­cult weeds in the au­tumn be­cause there is bet­ter translo­ca­tion of her­bi­cides down into the root sys­tem.

Ac­ti­vated Amitrol is a good her­bi­cide for au­tumn clean up weed con­trol be­cause it is gen­er­ally not used dur­ing the grow­ing sea­son and cov­ers a dif­fer­ent weed spec­trum to glyphosate. Where mal­low is the dom­i­nant weed, it may be nec­es­sary to use flurox­ypyr.

be cer­tain of their ef­fec­tive­ness. These are hy­drated lime at 1kg per square me­tre cul­ti­vated into the soil along the plant­ing row. Width of the treated strip is un­known but I would think prob­a­bly 1 to 1.5m width with the trees in the cen­tre of the strip. This treat­ment has per­formed as well as Basamid® in Tas­ma­nian stud­ies. Here, I have seen it per­form well in an ap­ple nurs­ery sit­u­a­tion.

For­ma­lin is also re­ported to be an ef­fec­tive SARD treat­ment when ap­plied to wet soils and is much less tem­per­a­ture de­pen­dent than other soil fu­mi­gants. Grow­ers who have tried it re­port that there are ap­pli­ca­tion prob­lems due to the large amount of wa­ter needed to drench it into the soil.

Where re­plant­ing is planned, life is a lot eas­ier if the new trees can be planted well be­fore bud break. This min­imises the fire­b­light risk by avoid­ing late flow­er­ing which can be a ma­jor prob­lem with late planted trees and also gives tree growth a full grow­ing sea­son to max­imise early tree de­vel­op­ment.

It is very im­por­tant to make sure newly planted trees grow well right from plant­ing. Where there has been good tree de­vel­op­ment in the first year, it is pos­si­ble to carry a sig­nif­i­cant crop of good qual­ity ex­portable fruit in the sec­ond year. The ul­ti­mate suc­cess of any new or­chard plant­ing depends on rapid canopy es­tab­lish­ment. This is largely de­ter­mined by how rapidly the trees grow in the first cou­ple of sea­sons. Mak­ing young trees grow well is much more im­por­tant than tree plant­ing den­sity and usu­ally much less ex­pen­sive than plant­ing trees closer.

As­sess soil qual­ity be­fore plant­ing to iden­tify lim­it­ing fac­tors to tree growth. This means both a phys­i­cal ex­am­i­na­tion of the soil to de­ter­mine soil depth, tex­ture and drainage and soil test­ing to de­ter­mine soil or­ganic mat­ter level, pH and nu­tri­ent lev­els.

The ben­e­fit of early plant­ing can­not be over em­pha­sised in re­gard to young tree es­tab­lish­ment and growth. A ready sup­ply of sol­u­ble phos­pho­rus has been shown to markedly im­prove young tree growth, even in soils with what ap­pears to be ad­e­quate phos­pho­rus lev­els. Mono-am­mo­nium phos­phate (MAP) is of­ten used around young trees to stim­u­late growth. About 100g per tree is the ap­pli­ca­tion rate. The best way to ap­ply this fer­tiliser for in­ten­sive plant­ings is to broad­cast it along the row. Do not be tempted to put it in the plant­ing hole. I have seen too many trees killed with fer­tiliser in con­tact with the roots.

Drainage to avoid soil wa­ter­log­ging is much more im­por­tant than ir­ri­ga­tion for young tree growth un­less the soil is very light and sandy with low mois­ture hold­ing ca­pac­ity. On soils with good mois­ture hold­ing ca­pac­ity and a favourable en­vi­ron­ment for root growth, it is pos­si­ble to grow young trees well with­out the need for ir­ri­ga­tion as long as their root sys­tems are well es­tab­lished be­fore hot weather with wind and high evap­or­tran­spi­ra­tion rates ar­rive.

Gen­er­ally, ir­ri­ga­tion is rec­om­mended for max­imis­ing young tree growth in in­ten­sive or­chards on pre­co­cious dwarf­ing root­stocks. They key is know­ing when and how to use it prop­erly. For in­ten­sive plant­ings, I pre­fer drip sys­tems rather than sprin­klers un­less the lat­ter are re­quired for frost pro­tec­tion.

Be­cause we are push­ing or­chard per­for­mance to its up­per lim­its and dwarf­ing, pre­co­cious root­stocks tend to have lim­ited root­ing vol­ume, the ir­ri­ga­tion sys­tem needs to have fer­ti­ga­tion ca­pa­bil­ity.

Keep­ing male vines nar­row and spurry in­creases fruit­ing canopy area.

This Hay­ward vine be­fore prun­ing has good fruit­ing wood op­tions with lots of ‘fruit stalk cane’ with prom­i­nent win­ter buds.

This vine is tied down evenly with a mix of wood age.

Notch graft higher than this if you have a nice straight piece of trunk.

Wet soil in this or­chard meant har­vest­ing equip­ment left deep tracks.

From left: Fig 3. This row was har­vested with a bin trailer train. Note there are no wheel tracks com­pared to fig­ure 4. Fig 4. This row was har­vested into bins in­di­vid­u­ally shifted on a heavy trac­tor with forks. Note the trac­tor ruts and in­jury to the gra

From top: Fig 5. These sec­ond leaf Scilate trees planted 3.5 x 1.5m on Pa­jam 2 M9 clone grew very well and are es­ti­mated to be car­ry­ing 25 to 30 tonnes per hectare of high qual­ity fruit. Fig 6. High qual­ity Scilate fruit com­ing from the trees shown in fig

From top: Fig 7. Mag­ne­sium de­fi­ciency is a ma­jor prob­lem in many high per­form­ing in­ten­sive or­chards. Heavy pre-plant­ing dressings of a slow re­lease mag­ne­sium fer­tiliser should help fix this prob­lem. Fig 8. The ef­fects of fer­tiliser burn to roots can linge

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