Novel herbal cures for HIV revalidated
“The object of all health education is to change the conduct of individual men, women, and children by teaching them to care for their bodies well, and this instruction should be given throughout the entire period of their educational life.” — Charlie H.
TOMORROW, December 1, 2017, is World AIDS Day (WAD). A day set aside to raise awareness on Human Immuno-deficiency Virus (Hiv)/acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) prevention, treatment and care. Anti Retroviral (ARV) drugs have been scientifically validated to be effective in treatment of HIV and preventing new infections. But the benefit comes at a great cost: liver and kidney damage, cancer among others. However, several studies have identified and validated local plants/herbs that could be used to boost immunity, prevent and treat opportunistic infections in people living with HIV without unpleasant side effects. Earlier studies had shown that a combination of local herbs including bitter leaf, bitter kola, lemon, lemon grass, Moringa, Gardonema mushroom and Neem tree could provide the elusive cure for HIV that causes AIDS.
Neem and citrus fruits
Indian Journal of Traditional But a recent study published in Knowledge showed how leaf extracts from neem tree Azadirachta indica/dogonyaro) ( stopped HIV infection. The study is titled “HIV-1 infection inhibition by neem Azadirachta indica ( A. Juss.) leaf extracts and Azadirachtin.” The researchers wrote: “… the objective of this study was to evaluate HIV-1 infection inhibition by neem leaf extracts and neem compounds. Cytotoxicity of aqueous and ethanolic neem leaf extracts and Azadirachtin and Limonene compounds was evaluated in CEM T-cells at concentrations of 1 ppm, 10 ppm (extracts); 1 μm, 10 μm (compounds). Only the aqueous extract concentration of 1 ppm and Azadirachtin at 1 μm and 10 μm concentrations allowed a cell viability of 100 per cent compared with controls. Based on the results of cytotoxicity we proceeded to evaluate the HIV infection inhibition with the aqueous extract at concentration of 1 ppm and Azadirachtin at both concentrations. Inhibition percentages greater than 50 per cent were obtained and showed to be significant compared to controls. “This work evidenced the HIV infection inhibition by aqueous neem leaf extracts and Azadirachtin; even though, the antiretroviral mechanism is not completely understood. Furthermore, more studies need to be conducted in order to identify the active compound responsible for the anti HIV activity described in the aqueous extract.” D-limonene is one of the most common terpenes in nature. It is a major constituent in several citrus oils (orange, lemon, mandarin, lime, and grapefruit).
A study published in Indian Journal of Medical Sciences has demonstrated the effects of alkaloidal extract of Phyllanthus niruri on HIV replication. Phyllanthus niruri Commonly called stonebreaker, also known as ‘Chanca piedra’ belongs to the family Euphorbiaceae. Phyllanthus niruri Phyllanthus amarus, is similar to which also belongs to the same family. It is a widespread tropical plant commonly found in coastal areas that grows 40 to 70cm tall. enyikwonwa ngwu In Nigeria, it is called and in the Ibo, oyomokeso amanke edem geeron-tsuntsaayee in Efik, (bird’s ehin olobe yin-olobe millet) in Hausa, and in Yoruba. The researchers from the Pharmaceutical Division, Institute of Chemical Technology, University of Mumbai, Matunga, Mumbai, Phyllanthus niruri India, noted: “has been found to exhibit marked inhibitory effect on hepatitis B virus evident by its exhaustive utility in cases of chronic jaundice. However, till date, research has not been focused on identification and valiPhyllanthus niruri dation of active pharmacophores of responsible for the reported inhibitory effect of its aqueous extract on anti-human immunodeficiency virus. The present investigation examines the anti-hiv effects of the alkaloidal extract of Phyllanthus niruri in human cell lines. “The inhibitory effect on HIV replication was monitored in terms of inhibition of virus induced cytopathogenecity in MT-4 Phyllanthus niruri cells. The alkaloidal extract of showed suppressing activity on strains of HIV-1 cells cultured on MT-4 cell lines. The CC50 for the extract was found to be 279.85μgml-1 whereas the EC50 was found to be 20.98μgml-1. Interestingly the Selectivity Index (SI) was found to be 13.34, which showed a clear selective toxicity of the extract for the viral cells. The Phyllanthus niruri alkaloidal extract of was thus found to exhibit sensitive inhibitory response on cytopathic effects induced by both the strains of human immunodeficiency virus on human MT-4 cells in the tested concentrations.” Indeed, Phyllanthus niruri has potential beneficial therapeutic actions in the management of hepatitis B, and its antiviral activity extends to HIV-1 RT inhibition. Qian-cutrone et al. isoPhyllanthus niruri. lated from a dried leaf of A novel compound, which they named ‘niruriside’, has a specific inhibitory activity against the binding of a regulator of expression of the virion (REV) protein to Rev-response element (RRE) RNA. The REVRRE regulatory mechanism plays a key role in the maintenance of high levels of viral propagation. Therefore, it can be further suggested that a partial block of REV function of Phyllanthus niruri may modulate progression in Hiv-infected individuals.
Plant compound ‘much more effective’ than traditional anti-hiv drug
Azidothymidine, the first drug that was approved in the fight against AIDS in the 1980s, is still a main component in the medication mix commonly prescribed to HIV patients today. But new research may have found a plant-derived chemical compound that is much more effective than azidothymidine. Although there is yet no cure for HIV, antiretroviral therapy significantly slows down the progression of the virus. The first drug to have been approved in the fight against AIDS is azidothymidine (AZT). AZT works by inhibiting an enzyme that the HIV virus needs to replicate inside a host cell. This enzyme is called reverse transcriptase. Journal of Natural Products, New research, published in the has found a plant compound that may be more effective at inhibiting this enzyme than AZT. The chemical compound is called “patentiflorin A” and is Justicia genderived from a medicinal plant found in East Asia: darussa. The discovery is the result of a research effort extending over several years, carried out by an international team of scientists from the University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC), the Hong Kong Baptist University in Kowloon Tong, and the Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology in Hanoi. Fortheremainingpartofthisstoryvisitwww.guardian.ng