News 14 ‘Working with computer on your lap can cause infertility’
Dr Kemi Ailoje is a Reproductive Endocrinologist, Fertility/IVF Specialist and the MD/CEO of Lifelink Fertility Clinic. Her focus over the years has been on women’s health, providing care, support and advocacy to women seeking babies. She speaks with on infertility management and the impact of stress on male and female fertility.
Daily Trust: What is the rate of women affected by infertility in Nigeria? Studies have shown that infertility rate in Nigeria is about 20 to 25 per cent.
DT: Why do women have secondary infertility and what can be done to help them?
The World Health Organization (WHO) describes primary infertility as a case in which the woman has never been pregnant before while with secondary infertility, a woman has been pregnant before, or had a baby but cannot conceive again.
There are emotional issues attached to secondary infertility. Sometimes, a woman who has one child wants more children. The Nigerian culture puts pressure on women to have a child, and when there is one, they want her to have more.
The general rule is that if a woman is 35 years old or under and has been trying to conceive for one year without getting pregnant, or if a woman is over 35 years and she has been having unprotected intercourse for six months (taking into cognisance her ovulation), or when a woman is in her 40s, she definitely needs advice from a fertility specialist.
Many will wonder why a woman should experience secondary infertility. Several factors influence that. As a woman is growing older, her eggs are equally ageing. She might experience complications of the reproductive organs; her husband could have low sperm count, she could experience lifestyle changes leading to weight gain and obesity, there could be new medical conditions like diabetes and she could have had prior surgery in the previous pregnancy. Complications from the previous pregnancy could cause infection, which prevents another conception.
Women could have children at any age during their reproductive years; even post-menopausal women can have children, using Assisted Reproductive Technology. If they don’t have the desired number of children, there are various options for them. A woman can do Intrauterine Insemination (IUI) /Artificial Insemination if her tubes are still open and if she still ovulates. In Intrauterine Insemination, the eggs are not brought out. Rather, the sperm is gently placed inside the woman’s womb to increase the chances of conception. Sometimes, timed intercourse, dependent on the monthly ovulation with Intrauterine Insemination, is a possible technique to have babies, whether as a first or second timer.
DT: Which is the most prevalent between primary and secondary infertility, and who is to be blamed for infertility?
Studies suggest that primary infertility is more common than secondary infertility. A lot of studies have also shown that the male factor accounts for 40 per cent of the cause of infertility, female factor 40 per cent, unknown factors 10 per cent, unexplained 10 per cent. It is, therefore, a 50-50 factor that prevents a couple from not having a baby.
Pregnancy occurs when a man with good sperm parameter meets with a woman with good quality eggs at the period of ovulation. Poor quality sperm may be a reason why there is no pregnancy. The fact that a man is ejaculating does not mean he has sperm cells. Seminal fluid analysis is the test done to determine the quality of the sperm. There are cases where sperm is low in count, motility (activity) and morphology (forms) and some may not have sperm cells in their ejaculate.
No sperm means the man may have quite a large volume of ejaculate but there is no sperm cell to form a baby inside it. You can imagine if someone digs the ground, put no seed and later covers it. Nothing will come out unlike someone who digs the ground, plants a seed, covers and
There are emotional issues attached to secondary infertility. Sometimes, a woman who has one child wants more children. The Nigerian culture puts pressure on women to have a child, and when there is one, they want her to have more