China raps U.S. war­planes’ op­er­a­tion

Pakistan Observer - - INTERNATIONAL -

in the past week, lit­tle changed from fig­ures pub­lished on April 19, ac­cord­ing to the ORB poll of 800 peo­ple for The Daily Tele­graph news­pa­per on Tues­day.

Sev­eral agen­cies and David Cameron’s ad­vis­ers are polling vot­ers al­most con­tin­u­ously on their plans for a ref­er­en­dum on June 23 on EU mem­ber­ship, a vote that will de­ter­mine the prime min­is­ter’s fu­ture and that of That leaves pa­tience, con­tain­ment, and hu­man­i­tar­ian aid as the least-bad poli­cies while wait­ing for this aw­ful war to play it­self out.

STEPHEN BID­DLE, JA­COB SHAPIRO N 2003, David Pe­traeus, then a di­vi­sion com man­der in Iraq, fa­mously asked “tell me how this ends?” in ref­er­ence to the con­flict just start­ing there. It was a good ques­tion then, and it’s a good ques­tion now. The war against the Is­lamic State gets a lot of at­ten­tion, much of it fo­cused on the im­me­di­ate: Is the war go­ing bet­ter or worse this month than last month? Is the Is­lamic State gain­ing ground or los­ing it? Are U.S. air strikes killing more Is­lamic State lead­ers or fewer? But these things only mat­ter if they con­trib­ute to an ul­ti­mate end to the con­flict on terms the United States can live with. Will they?

In fact, we have a lot of ev­i­dence on wars like this and how they typ­i­cally end. But it’s not a very en­cour­ag­ing story. The Is­lamic State threat is likely to per­sist, in one form or an­other, for a long time. In the mean­time, we’re go­ing to be stuck with a pol­icy that amounts to con­tain­ment and dam­age lim­i­ta­tion, whose short­com­ings will frus­trate many Amer­i­cans.

Civil wars of the kind in which the U.S. con­flict with the Is­lamic State is em­bed­ded are no­to­ri­ously hard to ter­mi­nate and typ­i­cally drag on for years. Datasets vary slightly, but most put the me­dian du­ra­tion of such con­flicts at seven to 10 years; and an im­por­tant mi­nor­ity drag on for a generation or more.

When they do end, it’s rarely be­cause an em­pow­ered, vic­to­ri­ous army marches into the en­emy cap­i­tal, pulls down the flag, and gov­erns a newly sta­ble so­ci­ety. Civil wars like to­day’s con­flict in Syria and Iraq are of­ten com­plex, multi-sided proxy con­flicts in which a va­ri­ety of lo­cal com­bat­ants have ties to out­side back­ers who fund, equip, train, and ad­vise al­lies’ forces. This out­side sup­port en­ables fight­ers to weather set­backs and hang on in the face of mil­i­tary ad­ver­sity. Out­side back­ers usu­ally have geopo­lit­i­cal rea­sons of their own to sup­port lo­cal prox­ies, and for most such back­ers, a sta­ble post­war state un­der ri­vals’ in­flu­ence of­ten looks worse than con­tin­ued chaos—so outsiders also usu­ally have in­cen­tives to

Ishowed “not much has changed over the past week” de­spite Obama on Fri­day urg­ing Bri­tons to re­main in the bloc.

“The ef­fect of the president’s visit may not yet be felt in the num­bers as some­times it takes a while for fac­tors to wash through. Also, peo­ple may not take much notice of what an out­sider has to say,” he wrote in The Tele­graph.—Agen­cies BEI­JING—China’s Min­istry of Na­tional De­fense has re­sponded to me­dia re­ports that six U.S. Air Force planes per­formed a flight mis­sion in “in­ter­na­tional airspace” in the vicin­ity of Huangyan Is­land in the South China Sea on April 19.

“We have no­ticed such re­ports, and it should be pointed out that the U.S. is push­ing mil­i­ta­riza­tion of the South China Sea in the name of ‘Free­dom of Nav­iga- tion,’” the min­istry’s In­for­ma­tion Bureau said in a statement. China is con­cerned about and op­posed to such ac­tions which threaten the sovereignty and se­cu­rity of coun­tries around the South China Sea and un­der­mine regional peace and sta­bil­ity, it stressed. Huangyan Is­land is China’s in­her­ent ter­ri­tory and the Chi­nese mil­i­tary will take all nec­es­sary mea­sures to safe­guard na­tional sovereignty and se­cu­rity, it added—Xin­hua Kaza­khstan has made a lot of steps lead­ing to the adop­tion of the IOFS statute at the 40th Ses­sion of the OIC Coun­cil of For­eign Min­is­ters (CFM) held in Con­akry, Guinea, in 2013. He men­tioned that the as­sis­tance within the frame­work of the OIC through a regional fund fol­low­ing the ex­am­ple of the United Na­tion Food and Agri­cul­ture Or­ga­ni­za­tion (FAO). —Email

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