Children’s food allergies related to immunosuppression
SCIENTISTS have found new evi dence to explain how food tolerance emerges over time in normal individuals, according to research published in Science. Food allergies affect around 15 million Americans, including many children. Symptoms of allergies and intolerance can range from relatively minor, such as a harmless skin rash, to potentially fatal anaphylactic shock. Many individuals outgrow their allergy as they reach adulthood. This is thought to be due to the immune system learning to tolerate food that it previously perceived as “foreign.”
Researchers from La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology (LJI) in San Diego, CA, led by Charles Surh, PhD, wanted to explain why children, who have more limited exposure to novel foods than adults, are more prone to food allergies. They hypothesized that consuming a normal diet would stimulate cells in the gut that prevent the immune system from rejecting food. Food and pathogens both display macromolecular markers known as antigens. These antigens announce to the immune system that a food is “foreign.”
Mouse studies have previously looked at how the body would distinguish antigenic “friend” from “foe.” The mice were fed with an egg protein that they had not eaten before. Researchers observed that an immunosuppressive cell, called a Treg cell, was produced in the gut. These Treg cells blocked the immune response to the new substances. It was not known if this would happen when young mammals encountered new foods in “real life.” Surh used “antigen-free” mouse models to represent an immunological blank slate. The mice were raised in a germfree environment. They were also fed a diet of amino acids, the building blocks of proteins, instead of foods that contain the proteins themselves.
This made the mice “immunologically naïve,” because amino acid building blocks are not big enough for the immune system to recognize them. It meant that the mice had little or no previous contact with antigenic proteins and other macromolecules. Other mice were germ free but fed on a normal diet. Molecular marker analysis revealed that the mice that consumed amino acids had no Tregs in the small intestine. In contrast, mice that were fed a normal protein diet had a large number of Tregs. This suggests that when proteins are contained in food, they stimulate Treg development. It also indicates that Tregs in the gut of normal mice might serve to prevent a potentially disastrous immune response to those proteins.
He said from the beginning of Pakistan this institution always stood shoulder by shoulder with nation in natural disasters.
He preyed to Almighty to save this country from any natural disasters.
Speaking on the occasion, Chairman Red Crescent Dr Saeed Elahi said that the ISLAMABAD—Governor Punjab Malik Muhammad Rafique Rajwana on Friday said that it was the responsibility of the government to provide free and quality education to the poor and deprived segment of the society as it was their basic right. Addressing the 15th Convocation of the Fatima Jinnah Women University Rawalpindi at Convention Centre, he said that government was making allout efforts for the promotion of education sector by focusing on higher education. Governor Punjab conferred degrees, gold, silver medals to the position holders who completed their degrees in different categories from the varsity and congratulated them, their faculty and parents on this historical achievement.
He appreciated the passion of those female students who came from far-flung areas of the country to get education in the university and said that it was the result of their hardwork and prayers of their parents. Governor Punjab urged the successful students of the varsity to play their pivotal role and enlightened the whole society with power of education. He said that “I especially congratulate those parents who work hard and taught their children despite low income and financial problems as the education was only a dream for them”.
Allah Almighty, he said, has born all humanity on equal rights, adding, the education is as compulsory for all. The country was facing many problems including unemployment, illiteracy, poorness, which would be overpowered soon as the country is now on the path of development, he added. Rajwana said that it was the high time to forge unity rather than quarreling with each other for politics and government adding that without it how the nation will progress.
Governor Punjab lauded the sacrifices of the lives of the security forces of Pakistan for the restoration of peace and asked students not to be worry as their future is now in safe hands. He also offered the corporate sector to take part in the promotion of education by providing gold medals and job opportunities to the students. Speaking on the occasion, Chairman Higher Education Commission (HEC) Dr Mukhtar Ahmad said that when HEC was established in 2002 the ratio of the women education was very low which now has been reached to almost 50%.
He admired the role of women in education and said that they were performing very well in all categories of the education including, medical, engineering, science, teaching etc. He said that no country can develop unless their women are educated adding that Fatima Jinnah Women University was doing very well in this regard. Dr Mukhtar said that government was focusing on higher education as it has doubled the annual budget of HEC.
“We have best institutions, faculty in Pakistan”, he said and added the government was making efforts to strengthen the education sector by initiating many projects including Fee Reimbursement Programme, Laptop Scheme especially in FATA, GB and in Southern Punjab. He urged the teaching faculty to play their important role to bring positive change and promoting character building in the society.
The students, he said, have need of characterization besides the education, he remarked. Earlier in the welcoming address Vice Chancellor of the university Prof. Dr Samina Amin Qadir urged its Alumni to become proud of the varsity by serving this country as you are the ambassador of your country. She also demanded of Rs 100 million from the government for the installment of biometric system, security measures and other projects of her institution.