Di­a­betes, a deadly dis­ease

Pakistan Observer - - OPINION - AROOJ AWAN

Ev­ery­one is aware with the word of su­gar. And it’s re­ally very sweet but the dis­ease re­lated to su­gar is very dan­ger­ous. In 1989 it was es­ti­mated that 4%of the world’s pop­u­la­tion had di­a­betes and in 1997 there were about 135 mil­lion suf­fer­ers world­wide. In 2000 it was rec­om­mended that over­weight chil­dren with other risk fac­tors in­clud­ing (Fam­ily his­tory, High blood pres­sure and High Choles­terol level) should be treated for type 2 Di­a­betes .The study found that di­a­betes has be­come more com­mon for all ages, races and ed­u­ca­tional lev­els. An in­crease in lev­els of obe­sity and a lack of phys­i­cal ac­tiv­ity among many peo­ple were seen as ma­jor con­tribut­ing fac­tors.

Di­a­betes Mel­li­tus is a dis­or­der of Islets of Langer­hans in the pan­creas that pre­vent the pro­duc­tion of in­sulin. Dis­ease that can be caused by re­duced pro­duc­tion of the hor­mone in­sulin or a re­duced re­sponse of the Liver, mus­cles and fat cells to in­sulin. This af­fects the body‘s abil­ity to use and reg­u­late su­gar in­akes ef­fec­tively. Treat­ment is by strict di­etary con­trol and oral or in­jected In­sulin, de­pend­ing on the type of Di­a­betes. What hap­pens in the body with Di­a­betes? In­sulin in­creases glu­cose up­take from the blood in to the most body cells, ex­cept the brain and liver. In the liver its ef­fect is to re­duce the pro­duc­tion of glu­cose. In­sulin works with other hor­mones to keep the con­cen­tra­tion of glu­cose in the blood stable. A pa­tient with di­a­betes does not have this close reg­u­la­tion and may find that his or her glu­cose lev­els rise dan­ger­ously af­ter a meal. Nor­mally, Urine does not con­tain glu­cose, but when the blood glu­cose level rises in a di­a­betic per­son, it ap­pears in the urine. Su­gar ac­cu­mu­lates first in the blood, then in the urine. The pa­tient ex­pe­ri­ences thirst, weight loss and in­creased fre­quency of uri­na­tion and vol­ume of urine, along with de­gen­er­a­tive changes in the cap­il­lary sys­tem. With­out treat­ment, the pa­tient may lose eye­sight, suf­fer from ul­cers, lapse in to di­a­betic coma and may be fa­tal. Early on­set di­a­betes tends to be more se­vere than that de­vel­op­ing in later years.

We can pre­vent it by chang­ing the life style, di­etary habits (starts by adding high fiber diet in­clud­ing fruits and veg­eta­bles. These fibers rich foods may help stop spikes in blood su­gar. Eat less meat and fewer sweets. Reg­u­lar phys­i­cal ac­tiv­ity can lower blood glu­cose level by de­creas­ing in­sulin re­sis­tance. It can also re­duce risk of heart dis­ease and high blood pres­sure also help to man­age the body weight. Eat­ing healthy foo is key to re­duc­ing risk of health com­pli­ca­tions from di­a­betes. There is no cure, but one can con­trol su­gar level by adopt­ing pre­cau­tions which can help re­duce risks of di­a­betes com­pli­ca­tions. Diet and phys­i­cal ac­tiv­ity may con­trol blood su­gar at first, but may need to take medicine down the road. Sup­port from fam­ily, friends and health care team can help to deal with di­a­betes long term. — Lahore

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