Animation is produced by creating a sequence of images (called frames) showing incremental motion and then playing back those images at a certain speed to give the illusion of movement.
Traditionally, animation was categorized into character animation and effects animation – today the same are popularly known as animation and visual effects, respectively. The types of animation are also defined, based on the kind of techniques employed. Some of these include: Classical/traditional animation: This was used before the advent of computers and refers to hand-drawing each frame on paper. Cut-out animation: the use of flat charac- ters and environments cut out from cardboard or paper. Stop-motion animation: The incremental photographing of miniature models of characters and environments in motion and then playing them back at the required frame rate. 2D digital animation: the use of digital tools to create the equivalent of hand-drawn or cut-out animation. 3D animation: This is a high quality digital counterpart of stop-motion. Since its inception in the 80s and 90s, it has become the most popular technique of animation given the added capabilities that it offers via precision software. As a result, animators can now create subtle levels of acting in characters and photorealistic rendering – something that was just not possible with traditional methods before.