A trip over the history of Tunisia
The actual history of the territory where the modern Tunisia lies began in the times that are considered to the northern Africa appeared in the Mesolithic period. The epochs of Berber nation, the Phoenician establishment of Punic Wars and Roman conquest, Vandals, Byzantines and Ottomans, French colonization, the Independence of the country and the revolution of January 14, 2011– all these stages of development of Tunisia are have shaped the modern country. In the early ninth century BC, the famous sailors and traders from the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea, Phoenicians, arrived to Africa. As their trade demanded more and more new markets, Phoenicians founded numerous city-states. Thus, having reached the northern part of Africa, Phoenicians established another city-state and named it “Kart Hudesht” meaning the “new city” in the Semitic language. Further on, the city became a powerful country under the name of Carthage. Carthage was so developing in the direction of the world it became one of the most powerful states of those times. Carthage became an equal rival to Rome and challenging its empire. The war between the two countries was inevitable. Three wars broke out between Rome and Carthage and they were called Punic Wars, and ended with the destruction of Carthage. where the tribe of Vandals became the dominant force. The kingdom of Vandals on the territory of the modern Tunisian existed for 94 years and was marked by the great rise in economic and social quality of life as the agriculture and trade were highly developed. By the middle of the sixth century, in 534, the African possessions of Vandals were conquered by the Byzantine Empire. The Ottomans had established their direct rule over Tunisia in 1574. During their rule the economic and political life of the country developed quickly, and the social sphere was modernized by numerous reforms, among which special attention was paid to education and culture. The Bey of Tunisia acknowledge French protectorate and signed the Treaty of Bardo in 1881.
Nevertheless, the supporters of Tunisian independence and patriots more and more often expressed the idea of sovereignty of Tunisia. Numerous demonstrations and resulted in Tunisian Independence on March 20, 1956. In July 1957, the constitutional role of the Bey was abolished and Habib Bourguiba became the head of state and the First President of the Republic of Tunisia.