The Great Pa­tri­otic War: A Snap­shot Of Rus­sian Suc­cess His­tory and work of Po­lit­i­cal Lead­er­ship

Dr. Khush­bakht Hina As­sis­tant Pro­fes­sor, Depart­ment of Ed­u­ca­tion Na­tional Uni­ver­sity of Mod­ern Lan­guages& Sciences, Islamabad

The Diplomatic Insight - - Contents - 1. 3.

Dr. Khush­bakht Hina

T he term Great Pa­tri­otic War Rus­sian is used in Rus­sia and some other for­mer re­publics of the Soviet Union to de­scribe the pe­riod from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945 in the many fronts of the eastern cam­paign of World War II be­tween the Soviet Union and Nazi Ger­many with its al­lies. As for as con­cern about this battle , it was war of lib­er­a­tion waged by the Soviet peo­ple for the free­dom and in­de­pen­dence of the so­cial­ist moth­er­land against fas­cist Ger­many and its al­lies—Italy, Hun­gary, Ru­ma­nia, Fin­land, and, in 1945, Ja­pan. In fact, the term Pa­tri­otic War refers to the Rus­sian re­sis­tance of the French in­va­sion of Rus­sia un­der Napoleon, which be­came known as the Pa­tri­otic War of 1812. This war was the most im­por­tant and de­ci­sive com­po­nent part of World War II (1939-45). The brief his­tory of this war is so un­ex­pected, as a mat­ter of fact when Hit­lerites had seized power in Ger­many in 1933, the Ger­man im­pe­ri­al­ists be­gan in­ten­sive prepa­ra­tion for war against the USSR in the be­lief that crush­ing the Soviet state would be the most im­por­tant and de­ci­sive phase in the strug­gle for world dom­i­na­tion. The rul­ing cir­cles of the USA, Great Bri­tain, and France with their pol­icy of non­in­ter­ven­tion in and tol­er­ance of the fas­cist ag­gres­sion, which they pur­sued un­til the be­gin­ning of World War II, and Amer­i­can and Bri­tish mo­nop­o­lies mighty mil­i­tary and eco­nomic po­ten­tial of fas­cist Ger­many, hop­ing to di­rect it against the Soviet Union. It was most worst time on Rus­sians but un­der ex­tremely un­fa­vor­able con­di­tions Soviet troops en­tered the war with a strong and ex­pe­ri­enced en­emy that had the eco­nomic re­sources of al­most all of West­ern Europe at its dis­posal (the out­put of the ma­jor types of industrial goods of fas­cist Ger­many and its oc­cu­pied and al­lied coun­tries was al­most dou­ble that of the USSR) and whose army had been mo­bi­lized and con­cen­trated well in ad­vance. In Soviet lit­er­a­ture it is cus­tom­ary to divide the Great Pa­tri­otic War into three pe­ri­ods. First pe­riod (June 22, 1941, through Nov. 18, 1942)—the sum­mer-fall cam­paign of 1941 (June through Novem­ber), the win­ter cam­paign of 1941-42 (De­cem­ber 1941 through April 1942), and the sum­mer-fall cam­paign of 1942 (May to Novem­ber). 2. Sec­ond pe­riod (Nov. 19, 1942 through the end

of 1943)—the win­ter cam­paign of 1942-43 (Novem­ber 1942 through March 1943) and the sum­mer-fall cam­paign of 1943 (April through De­cem­ber). Third pe­riod (Jan­uary 1944 to May 9, 1945)—the win­ter cam­paign of 1944 (Jan­uary through May), the sum­mer-fall cam­paign of 1944 (June through De­cem­ber), and the 1945 cam­paign (Jan­uary to May). The war of the USSR with im­pe­ri­al­ist Ja­pan (Aug. 9 through Sept. 2, 1945) was a di­rect se­quel and an im­por­tant part of the Great Pa­tri­otic War; although a sep­a­rate cam­paign (Soviet-Ja­panese War of 1945), it was at the same time, the main event of the last pe­riod of World War II. As reader and re­searcher i read dif­fer­ent ar­ti­cles re­lated with Pa­tri­otic War of 1812, no-doubt at that times, it was so shock­ing that Soviet losses were so vast, the hor­ror of Stal­in­grad lasted for 199 days, cost­ing an es­ti­mated 1.5 mil­lion lives from both sides. it was ter­ri­ble scene when the be­sieged city quickly turned into a meat grinder, at that crusher time the life ex­pectancy of a newly ar­rived sol­dier was less than a day. Bat­tles raged for ev­ery street, house, base­ment and stair­case and the ar­eas cap­tured

by the Wehrma­cht troops by day, were re-taken by the Soviet army at night. The Ger­mans dubbed this type of war– “rat war”, bit­terly jok­ing about seiz­ing the kitchen at­ten­tion-grab­bing fact is one build­ing that the Ger­mans failed to take was the so-called “Pavlov’s House”. In Rus­sian suc­cess story here i can­not for­get to men­tion the mem­o­rable work of po­lit­i­cal lead­ers and their par­ties spe­cially glo­ri­ous Com­mu­nist Party. Ac­tu­ally glo­ri­ous Com­mu­nist Party was the ex­pe­ri­enced leader of the Soviet peo­ple, their in­spirer and or­ga­nizer in the years of war as well as peace; ev­ery­where—at the front, in the rear, in mo­bi­liz­ing, and guiding force. Through per­sonal ex­am­ple and mov­ing speeches, the Com­mu­nists strength­ened the morale of the peo­ple and roused them to feats of arms and la­bor. The Party was guided in its work by Lenin’s never-end­ing teach­ing about the de­fense of the so­cial­ist han­dle with the most try­ing or­deals of the Great Pa­tri­otic War were the con­stant unity of its ranks, the rev­o­lu­tion­ary the­ory of Marx­ism-Lenin­ism, dis­ci­pline and or­ga­ni­za­tion, and close co­he­sion around the Cen­tral Com­mit­tee. A to­tal of 1.5 mil­lion Com­mu­nists, in­clud­ing tens of thou­sands of Party, state, trade union, and Kom­so­mol lead­ers, went to the front dur­ing the Great Pa­tri­otic War. More than 5 mil­lion peo­ple joined the Com­mu­nist Party dur­ing the war and although more than 3 mil­lion Com­mu­nists died in com­bat against the enemies of the Soviet moth­er­land, by the end of the war the Party had al­most 6 mil­lion mem­bers, of whom 53 per­cent were in the armed forces. Re­ly­ing on the sovi­ets as agen­cies of state author­ity, on the trade unions, the Kom­so­mol, and other public and po­lit­i­cal or­ga­ni­za­tions of the work­ing peo­ple, the Party con­ducted enor­mous work among the masses. It ed­u­cated the Soviet peo­ple in the ideas of Marx­is­mLenin­ism and rev­o­lu­tion­ary tra­di­tions and nur­tured among them a readi­ness for heroic deeds in the name of victory over the en­emy. The press, ra­dio, lit­er­a­ture, art, and the whole ag­i­ta­tion and pro­pa­ganda work of the Party or­ga­ni­za­tions were placed in the ser­vice of the Com­mu­nist ed­u­ca­tion of the masses. Us­ing con­crete ex­am­ples of Hit­lerite atroc­i­ties, the Party nur­tured a burning ha­tred for the en­emy among the Soviet peo­ple. The Com­mu­nist Party mo­bi­lized all the state, eco­nomic, and public or­ga­ni­za­tions to cre­ate a well-or­ga­nized war econ­omy that could pro­vide the front with ev­ery­thing needed for victory. The Party de­velop their slo­gan “Ev­ery­thing for the front, ev­ery­thing for victory!” although its be­came the de­ci­sive slo­gan in the back. The Soviet peo­ple suf­fered mas­sive ma­te­rial hard­ship dur­ing the war, but they de­ter­minedly trusted their own Party and coura­geously fought and worked for the wel­fare of the moth­er­land. This union of the Party and the peo­ple was the victory over Ger­man dic­ta­tor­ship. The Com­mu­nist Party de­voted par­tic­u­lar at­ten­tion to the daily life and ac­tiv­i­ties of the armed forces. The victory of the Red Army was a victory of the Party’s mil­i­tary pol­icy and of the prin­ci­ples of Soviet mil­i­tary devel­op­ment worked out by Lenin. The Com­mu­nist Party in ev­ery pos­si­ble way sup­ported the devel­op­ment of Soviet mil­i­tary thought, aroused cre­ative ini­tia­tive among mil­i­tary per­son­nel, and saw to it that new and valu­able war ex­pe­ri­ence was passed on to the whole navy and im­ple­mented its war pol­icy through the Chief Po­lit­i­cal Ad­min­is­tra­tion, war coun­cils, com­man­ders, po­lit­i­cal agen­cies, and Party or­ga­ni­za­tions. The war coun­cils were agen­cies of col­lec­tive lead­er­ship of the troops, which, how­ever, did not re­strict the cor­re­spond­ing com­man­ders’ author­ity in mak­ing de­ci­sions on op­er­a­tional ques­tions. The party work was aimed at strength­en­ing the army and ral­lied the per­son­nel around the Party and its Cen­tral Com­mit­tee. To strengthen the Party lead­er­ship of the armed forces, the Party sent the best of its sons to the front. The Com­mu­nists were al­ways the re­li­able sup­port of the com­man­der in com­bat, and they fought in the most best servicemen joined the Party; they con­sid­ered it a great to die as com­mu­nists. It is per­fectly nat­u­ral that about half of all those who were awarded or­ders and medals dur­ing the war were Com­mu­nists and Kom­so­mols. Among the He­roes of the Soviet Union, 65 per­cent were Com­mu­nists and 30 per­cent Kom­so­mols. did not weaken the Party but strength­ened it still fur­ther. There­fore dur­ing the war the Party grew nu­mer­i­cally and be­came even more strength­ened ide­o­log­i­cally. The Soviet peo­ple, closely united and led by the Party, won a world­his­toric victory in the Great Pa­tri­otic War. In de­mol­ished the fas­cist at­tack­ers, the Soviet Union not only safe­guarded its free­dom and in­de­pen­dence but played the im­por­tant role in the free­dom of the peo­ples of Europe and Asia from civ­i­liza­tion was saved. in short in the safety of Asia and soviet unions, the gloomy fact is that seven mil­lion of Soviet deaths were died .The USSR’s losses were es­ti­mated at about 26.6 mil­lion, ac­count­ing for half of all WW2 ca­su­al­ties. The mem­ory of the war, re­ferred to as the Great Pa­tri­otic War, is par­tic­u­larly highly praised in Rus­sia. In the USSR the end of the war was con­sid­ered to be May 9, 1945, when the Ger­man sur­ren­der took ef­fect. The date has be­come a na­tional hol­i­day and Victory Day, still now it is com­mit to mem­ory and cel­e­brate in a grand mil­i­tary pro­ces­sion on Red Square.

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