The Great Patriotic War: A Snapshot Of Russian Success History and work of Political Leadership
Dr. Khushbakht Hina Assistant Professor, Department of Education National University of Modern Languages& Sciences, Islamabad
Dr. Khushbakht Hina
T he term Great Patriotic War Russian is used in Russia and some other former republics of the Soviet Union to describe the period from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945 in the many fronts of the eastern campaign of World War II between the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany with its allies. As for as concern about this battle , it was war of liberation waged by the Soviet people for the freedom and independence of the socialist motherland against fascist Germany and its allies—Italy, Hungary, Rumania, Finland, and, in 1945, Japan. In fact, the term Patriotic War refers to the Russian resistance of the French invasion of Russia under Napoleon, which became known as the Patriotic War of 1812. This war was the most important and decisive component part of World War II (1939-45). The brief history of this war is so unexpected, as a matter of fact when Hitlerites had seized power in Germany in 1933, the German imperialists began intensive preparation for war against the USSR in the belief that crushing the Soviet state would be the most important and decisive phase in the struggle for world domination. The ruling circles of the USA, Great Britain, and France with their policy of nonintervention in and tolerance of the fascist aggression, which they pursued until the beginning of World War II, and American and British monopolies mighty military and economic potential of fascist Germany, hoping to direct it against the Soviet Union. It was most worst time on Russians but under extremely unfavorable conditions Soviet troops entered the war with a strong and experienced enemy that had the economic resources of almost all of Western Europe at its disposal (the output of the major types of industrial goods of fascist Germany and its occupied and allied countries was almost double that of the USSR) and whose army had been mobilized and concentrated well in advance. In Soviet literature it is customary to divide the Great Patriotic War into three periods. First period (June 22, 1941, through Nov. 18, 1942)—the summer-fall campaign of 1941 (June through November), the winter campaign of 1941-42 (December 1941 through April 1942), and the summer-fall campaign of 1942 (May to November). 2. Second period (Nov. 19, 1942 through the end
of 1943)—the winter campaign of 1942-43 (November 1942 through March 1943) and the summer-fall campaign of 1943 (April through December). Third period (January 1944 to May 9, 1945)—the winter campaign of 1944 (January through May), the summer-fall campaign of 1944 (June through December), and the 1945 campaign (January to May). The war of the USSR with imperialist Japan (Aug. 9 through Sept. 2, 1945) was a direct sequel and an important part of the Great Patriotic War; although a separate campaign (Soviet-Japanese War of 1945), it was at the same time, the main event of the last period of World War II. As reader and researcher i read different articles related with Patriotic War of 1812, no-doubt at that times, it was so shocking that Soviet losses were so vast, the horror of Stalingrad lasted for 199 days, costing an estimated 1.5 million lives from both sides. it was terrible scene when the besieged city quickly turned into a meat grinder, at that crusher time the life expectancy of a newly arrived soldier was less than a day. Battles raged for every street, house, basement and staircase and the areas captured
by the Wehrmacht troops by day, were re-taken by the Soviet army at night. The Germans dubbed this type of war– “rat war”, bitterly joking about seizing the kitchen attention-grabbing fact is one building that the Germans failed to take was the so-called “Pavlov’s House”. In Russian success story here i cannot forget to mention the memorable work of political leaders and their parties specially glorious Communist Party. Actually glorious Communist Party was the experienced leader of the Soviet people, their inspirer and organizer in the years of war as well as peace; everywhere—at the front, in the rear, in mobilizing, and guiding force. Through personal example and moving speeches, the Communists strengthened the morale of the people and roused them to feats of arms and labor. The Party was guided in its work by Lenin’s never-ending teaching about the defense of the socialist handle with the most trying ordeals of the Great Patriotic War were the constant unity of its ranks, the revolutionary theory of Marxism-Leninism, discipline and organization, and close cohesion around the Central Committee. A total of 1.5 million Communists, including tens of thousands of Party, state, trade union, and Komsomol leaders, went to the front during the Great Patriotic War. More than 5 million people joined the Communist Party during the war and although more than 3 million Communists died in combat against the enemies of the Soviet motherland, by the end of the war the Party had almost 6 million members, of whom 53 percent were in the armed forces. Relying on the soviets as agencies of state authority, on the trade unions, the Komsomol, and other public and political organizations of the working people, the Party conducted enormous work among the masses. It educated the Soviet people in the ideas of MarxismLeninism and revolutionary traditions and nurtured among them a readiness for heroic deeds in the name of victory over the enemy. The press, radio, literature, art, and the whole agitation and propaganda work of the Party organizations were placed in the service of the Communist education of the masses. Using concrete examples of Hitlerite atrocities, the Party nurtured a burning hatred for the enemy among the Soviet people. The Communist Party mobilized all the state, economic, and public organizations to create a well-organized war economy that could provide the front with everything needed for victory. The Party develop their slogan “Everything for the front, everything for victory!” although its became the decisive slogan in the back. The Soviet people suffered massive material hardship during the war, but they determinedly trusted their own Party and courageously fought and worked for the welfare of the motherland. This union of the Party and the people was the victory over German dictatorship. The Communist Party devoted particular attention to the daily life and activities of the armed forces. The victory of the Red Army was a victory of the Party’s military policy and of the principles of Soviet military development worked out by Lenin. The Communist Party in every possible way supported the development of Soviet military thought, aroused creative initiative among military personnel, and saw to it that new and valuable war experience was passed on to the whole navy and implemented its war policy through the Chief Political Administration, war councils, commanders, political agencies, and Party organizations. The war councils were agencies of collective leadership of the troops, which, however, did not restrict the corresponding commanders’ authority in making decisions on operational questions. The party work was aimed at strengthening the army and rallied the personnel around the Party and its Central Committee. To strengthen the Party leadership of the armed forces, the Party sent the best of its sons to the front. The Communists were always the reliable support of the commander in combat, and they fought in the most best servicemen joined the Party; they considered it a great to die as communists. It is perfectly natural that about half of all those who were awarded orders and medals during the war were Communists and Komsomols. Among the Heroes of the Soviet Union, 65 percent were Communists and 30 percent Komsomols. did not weaken the Party but strengthened it still further. Therefore during the war the Party grew numerically and became even more strengthened ideologically. The Soviet people, closely united and led by the Party, won a worldhistoric victory in the Great Patriotic War. In demolished the fascist attackers, the Soviet Union not only safeguarded its freedom and independence but played the important role in the freedom of the peoples of Europe and Asia from civilization was saved. in short in the safety of Asia and soviet unions, the gloomy fact is that seven million of Soviet deaths were died .The USSR’s losses were estimated at about 26.6 million, accounting for half of all WW2 casualties. The memory of the war, referred to as the Great Patriotic War, is particularly highly praised in Russia. In the USSR the end of the war was considered to be May 9, 1945, when the German surrender took effect. The date has become a national holiday and Victory Day, still now it is commit to memory and celebrate in a grand military procession on Red Square.