Turk­menistan

The Diplomatic Insight - - News -

On Oc­to­ber 27, 1991, Turk­menistan be­came in­de­pen­dent state, and since then this date is marked as the In­de­pen­dence Day.On De­cem­ber 12, 1995, Turk­menistan was rec­og­nized as a per­ma­nently neu­tral state by the res­o­lu­tion of the UN Gen­eral As­sem­bly with the unan­i­mous sup­port of all 185 mem­ber states (at that time). Turk­menistan is a demo­cratic, le­gal, sec­u­lar state. The form of gov­ern­ment is a pres­i­den­tial repub­lic. The po­lit­i­cal struc­ture of the Turk­men state is formed in ac­cor­dance with the Con­sti­tu­tion of Turk­menistan, adopted on May 18, 1992 (the new version on Septem­ber 26, 2008). The Con­sti­tu­tion of Turk­menistan is the Ba­sic law of the state. Ac­cord­ing to that law, Turk­menistan’s state mech­a­nism is based on the prin­ci­ple of sep­a­ra­tion of pow­ers into leg­isla­tive, ex­ec­u­tive and ju­di­cial branches which act in­de­pen­dently and bal­ance each and pro­vi­sions have direct force. Laws and other le­gal acts that con­tra­dict the Con­sti­tu­tion have no le­gal force. Peo­ple are the holder of sovereignty and the only source of power of Turk­menistan. The state guar­an­tees the free­dom of re­li­gions and con­fes­sions and their equal­ity be­fore the law. Re­li­gious or­ga­ni­za­tions are apart from the state and can’t in­ter­fere with the state af­fairs and ex­e­cute state func­tions. The state ed­u­ca­tion sys­tem is formed separately from the re­li­gious or­ga­ni­za­tions and has a sec­u­lar na­ture. The Pres­i­dent of Turk­menistan is the at the head of the state and ex­ec­u­tive power. The Pres­i­dent of Turk­menistan chairs the Cab­i­net of Min­is­ters – the Gov­ern­ment of Turk­menistan. The Pres­i­dent of Turk­menistan is the guar­an­tor of the state in­de­pen­dence and neu­tral sta­tus of Turk­menistan, its ter­ri­to­rial in­tegrity, the ob­ser­vance of the Con­sti­tu­tion and the per­for­mance of in­ter­na­tional obli­ga­tions. The Pres­i­dent of Turk­menistan is the Supreme Com­man­der in Chief of Turk­menistan. Leg­isla­tive power is ex­er­cised by the supreme rep­re­sen­ta­tive body – the Me­jlis (Par­lia­ment) of Turk­menistan, which con­sists of 125 deputies, elected in ac­cor­dance with the ter­ri­to­rial elec­tion dis­tricts for the term of 5 years. The elec­tions of the deputies of the Me­jlis are car­ried out by the cit­i­zens of Turk­menistan on the ba­sis of na­tion­wide, equal and direct elec­toral law with se­cret vot­ing and on al­ter­na­tive bases. Ju­di­cial power in Turk­menistan be­longs to the courts. Ju­di­cial power is meant to de­fend the rights and free­doms of cit­i­zens, state and pub­lic in­ter­ests which are pro­tected by the law. The ter­ri­tory of Turk­menistan is equal to 491, 21 thou­sand km2. Its ter­ri­tory ex­tends for 1100 km from the west to the east and ex­tends for 650 km from north to south. The pop­u­la­tion of Turk­menistan is more than 6.2 mil­lion peo­ple. Turk­menistan is a multi­na­tional state. There are more than 100 na­tions and eth­nic groups liv­ing in the coun­try.

STATE LAN­GUAGE

The Turk­men lan­guage is the state lan­guage. All cit­i­zens of Turk­menistan are granted the right to use the na­tive lan­guage. The ed­u­ca­tional in­sti­tu­tions of Turk­menistan en­sure learn­ing of three lan­guages – Turk­men, English and Rus­sian.

CUR­RENCY

Na­tional cur­rency is manat, in­tro­duced into cir­cu­la­tion on Novem­ber 1, 1993. At present time the ra­tio of the na­tional cur­rency against the freely con­vert­ible cur­rency amounts to: 3,50 man­ats = 1 US dol­lar.

AD­MIN­IS­TRA­TIVE TER­RI­TO­RIAL STRUC­TURE

Cap­i­tal city of Turk­menistan – Ash­ga­bat, which is the ad­min­is­tra­tivet­er­ri­to­rial unit possessing the right of the prov­ince (ve­layat). Ash­ga­bat in­cludes 6 dis­tricts (etraps): Arch­a­bil dis­trict, Bagti­yarlyk dis­trict, Kopetdag dis­trict, Berkarar­lik dis­trict, Abadan dis­trict and Rukhaba dis­trict. The to­tal area makes up 47 thou­sand 26 hectares. Turk­menistan is di­vided into 5 prov­inces – Ahal, Balkan, Dashoguz, Le­bap and Mary. Each prov­ince is di­vided into dis­tricts. There are 52 dis­tricts in Turk­menistan, 25 cities, in­clud­ing 15 cities with the right of dis­trict, 78 vil­lages and 560 ru­ral coun­cils (ru­ral mu­nic­i­pal units) and 1927 ru­ral set­tle­ments.

RE­MARK­ABLE DATES OF TURK­MENISTAN

The ma­jor state and na­tional hol­i­days of the state: New Year – Jan­uary 1, the Day of the State Flag of Turk­menistan – Fe­bru­ary 19, In­ter­na­tional Women’s Day – March 8, Na­tional Spring – May 9, the Day of the Con­sti­tu­tion and the Day of Re­vival, Unity and Poetry of Mag­tymguly – May 18, Turk­menistan’s In­de­pen­dence Day - Turk­menistan – the Day of Neu­tral­ity – De­cem­ber 12. The cer­tain dates of an­nu­ally marked hol­i­days Eid al-Adha with the de­crees of the Pres­i­dent of Turk­menistan. Me­mo­rial days: Na­tional Com­mem­o­ra­tion Day – Oc­to­ber 6.

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