The se­crets of spe­cial num­bers

Panay News - - REGION -  By Pio B. Var­gas Jr.,

Teacher III, Pan­i­tan Na­tional High School

WHAT are the se­crets of spe­cial num­bers? What makes them spe­cial? The rea­son why they are called spe­cial num­bers is be­cause they form spe­cial math­e­mat­i­cal pat­tern.

It’s de­fined sim­ply, but there is al­ways that hes­i­ta­tion when learn­ing a math­e­mat­i­cal pat­tern or learn­ing Math in gen­eral. But in life and al­ways, for ev­ery prob­lem, there is a res­o­lu­tion.

I n Math, for ev­ery equa­tion there i s a cor­re­spond­ing so­lu­tion. What are spe­cial num­bers and their se­crets? In the his­tory of Math­e­mat­ics, the fol­low­ing items are con­sid­ered spe­cial num­bers: palin­dromes, prime num­bers, square and square roots, ex­po­nents and pow­ers, fac­tors and mul­ti­ples, and in­fi­nite num­bers.

Palin­dromes are spe­cial num­bers be­cause they can be read in the same or­der in ei­ther for­ward or re­verse di­rec­tion. A good ex­am­ple of this kind of spe­cial num­ber is 232 where 2 comes first and last such that whether we start from ei­ther left to right or right to left the value re­mains same.

In con­trast, 561 is not a palin­drome be­cause if we read this from right to left, the num­ber would be 165. This is the same when it comes to words such as race­car and phrases like stack cats. Whether you start from the last let­ter back­wards, it will read the same.

Prime num­bers are num­bers that can only be di­vided by it­self and 1 (one) to leave a whole num­ber ( in­te­ger) an­swer. Ex­am­ples of prime num­bers in­clude 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, and 29, but

there are an in­fi­nite amount of larger prime num­bers too. 7 is a prime num­ber since it can only be di­vided by it­self or 1 to leave a whole num­ber.

Ex­am­ples: 7 ÷ 7 = 1 and 7 ÷ 1 = 7. If you di­vide 7 by any other num­ber the an­swer is not a whole num­ber. Ex­am­ples: 7 ÷ 2 = 3.5 and 7 ÷ 5 = 1.4. Nine (9) is not a prime num­ber. 9 can be di­vided by it­self, 1 and 3 to leave a whole num­ber. Ex­am­ples: 9 ÷ 9 = 1 and 9 ÷ 1 = 9 and 9 ÷ 3 = 3. Two (2) is the only even prime num­ber. All other even num­bers, of course, are di­vis­i­ble by 2.

Square and square roots are also con­sid­ered as spe­cial num­bers. The square of a num­ber is the num­ber that you get if you mul­ti­ply that num­ber by it­self. It is writ­ten as x2 For ex­am­ple: 52 = 5 x 5 = 25.

Square num­bers are used in area cal­cu­la­tions as well as other ar­eas of math­e­mat­ics. Sup­pose you want to paint a wall which is 5 me­ters high by 5 me­ters wide. Mul­ti­ply 5m × 5m to give you 25m2. You would need to buy enough paint for 25m2.

The square root of a num­ber is the num­ber that is squared to ob­tain that num­ber. The square root sym­bol is √ Square roots are eas­ier to un­der­stand with ex­am­ples: √25 = 5, i.e. 5 is the square root of 25 since 5 x 5 = 25 √4 = 2, i.e. 2 is the square root of 4 since 2 x 2 =4. Not all num­bers have a whole square root. For ex­am­ple, √13 is 3.60555.

Ex­po­nents and pow­ers are also another set of spe­cial num­bers. Squares are par­tic­u­lar types of