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In­struc­tional ma­te­ri­als have been de­fined by var­i­ous au­thors. Obanya (1989) viewed them as di­dac­tic ma­te­rial thing which are sup­posed to make learn­ing and teach­ing pos­si­ble. Ac­cord­ing to Ab­dul­lahi (1982), in­struc­tional ma­te­ri­als are ma­te­ri­als or tools lo­cally made or im­ported that could made tremen­dous en­hance­ment of les­son im­pact is in­tel­li­gently used. Ik­e­ri­onwu (Isola, 2010) re­ferred to them as ob­jects or de­vices, which help the teacher to make a les­son much clearer to the learner. In­struc­tional ma­te­ri­als are also de­scribe as a con­crete or phys­i­cal ob­jects which pro­vide sound, vis­ual, or both to the sense or­gans dur­ing teach­ing (as cited in Agina-obu, 2005).

Onyeachu (2010) de­fined in­struc­tional ma­te­ri­als as ways and means of mak­ing the teach­ing and learn­ing process easy, more mean­ing­ful and un­der­stand­able. In a sim­i­lar def­i­ni­tion, Ba­balola (2004) ex­plained that in­struc­tional ma­te­ri­als are de­signed to pro­mote and en­cour­age ef­fec­tive teach­ing and learn­ing ex­pe­ri­ences. In­struc­tional ma­te­ri­als are there­fore, sight tools for teach­ers at all lev­els of ed­u­ca­tion for ef­fec­tive in­struc­tional de­liv­ery and pro­mo­tion of learner’s aca­demic achieve­ment.

In­struc­tional ma­te­ri­als are in var­i­ous classes, such as au­dio or au­ral, vis­ual or au­dio- vis­ual. Thus, au­dio in­struc­tional ma­te­ri­als refers to those de­vices that make use of the sense of hear­ing only, like ra­dio and au­dio tape record­ing. Vis­ual in­struc­tional ma­te­ri­als on the other hand, are those de­vices ap­peal to the sense of both hear­ing and see­ing such as tele­vi­sion, mo­tion pic­ture, and the com­puter.

The in­struc­tional teach­ing ma­te­ri­als makes the teach­ing and learn­ing eas­ier be­cause it cap­tures the at­ten­tion of the learn­ers, Fa­cil­i­tates the un­der­stand­ing of ab­stract con­cept, Save time by lim­it­ing the use of wordy ex­pla­na­tion, it pro­vides the learner with op­por­tu­nity to ma­nip­u­late ob­ject in the en­vi­ron­ment.

There have been sev­eral stud­ies on in­struc­tional ma­te­ri­als and aca­demic achieve­ment. For in­stance, Mo­moh (Isola, 2010), con­ducted a re­search on the ef­fects of in­struc­tional re­sources on stu­dents’per­for­mance in West Africa School Cer­tifi­cate Ex­am­i­na­tions ( WASCE) in Kwara State. He cor­re­lated ma­te­rial re­sources with aca­demic achieve­ments of stu­dents in ten sub­jects. Data were col­lected from the sub­ject teach­ers in re­la­tion to the re­sources em­ployed in the teach­ing. The achieve­ment of stu­dents in WASCE for the past five years were re­lated to the re­sources avail­able for the teach­ing of each of the sub­jects. He con­cluded that ma­te­rial re­sources have sig­nif­i­cant ef­fect on the stu­dent’s achieve­ment in each of the sub­ject. In the same man­ner, Moron­fola ( 2002 ) car­ried out a re­search in Ilorin Lo­cal Gov­ern­ment Area of Kwara State. She used ques­tion­naires to col­lect data on the ma­te­rial re­sources avail­able for the teach­ing of some se­lected sub­jects in ten sec­ondary schools and re­lated these to the stu­dents’achieve­ment in each of the se­lected sub­jects and to the amount of re­sources avail­able for the teach­ing of the sub­jects. Find­ings showed a sig­nif­i­cant ef­fect of ma­te­rial re­sources on the stu­dents’ aca­demic per­for­mance in these sub­jects.

Study car­ried out by Nwike and Onye­jegbu (2013) re­vealed that those stu­dents taught with in­struc­tional ma­te­ri­als per­formed bet­ter than those taught with­out in­struc­tional ma­te­ri­als. This find­ing is in line with the work of Ola­gunju (2000) who found out that there was a re­mark­able dif­fer­ence in the achieve­ment scores of stu­dents taught with var­i­ous in­struc­tional ma­te­ri­als and those not ex­posed to the use of in­struc­tional ma­te­ri­als. There is there­fore a gen­eral con­sen­sus that in­struc­tional ma­te­ri­als en­hances teach­ing and learn­ing and leads to bet­ter stu­dents’achieve­ment. This shows that stu­dents learn and per­form bet­ter when they are taught with in­struc­tional ma­te­ri­als be­cause the use of in­struc­tional ma­te­ri­als give the stu­dents the op­por­tu­nity to see, feel and touch the ma­te­ri­als dur­ing teach­ing.

Ok­endu (2012) as­serted that reg­u­lar in­struc­tional su­per­vi­sion has a sig­nif­i­cant bear­ing on stu­dents’aca­demic per­for­mance. He also af­firmed that ad­e­quate sup­ply of in­struc­tional re­sources have sig­nif­i­cant ef­fect on the stu­dents’aca­demic per­for­mance.

As as­serted by Onyeachu (2008), no mat­ter how well a cur­ricu­lum plan is, if there are poorly planned and de­signed in­struc­tional ma­te­ri­als and other in­puts, the aims may not be achieved.

— oOo—

The au­thor is Teacher III at Benigno Aquino Na­tional High School, Divi­sion Of Tar­lac Prov­ince

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