USING INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS IN TEACHING-LEARNING PROCESS
RAMON Y. HIPOLITO, JR.
Instructional materials have been defined by various authors. Obanya (1989) viewed them as didactic material thing which are supposed to make learning and teaching possible. According to Abdullahi (1982), instructional materials are materials or tools locally made or imported that could made tremendous enhancement of lesson impact is intelligently used. Ikerionwu (Isola, 2010) referred to them as objects or devices, which help the teacher to make a lesson much clearer to the learner. Instructional materials are also describe as a concrete or physical objects which provide sound, visual, or both to the sense organs during teaching (as cited in Agina-obu, 2005).
Onyeachu (2010) defined instructional materials as ways and means of making the teaching and learning process easy, more meaningful and understandable. In a similar definition, Babalola (2004) explained that instructional materials are designed to promote and encourage effective teaching and learning experiences. Instructional materials are therefore, sight tools for teachers at all levels of education for effective instructional delivery and promotion of learner’s academic achievement.
Instructional materials are in various classes, such as audio or aural, visual or audio- visual. Thus, audio instructional materials refers to those devices that make use of the sense of hearing only, like radio and audio tape recording. Visual instructional materials on the other hand, are those devices appeal to the sense of both hearing and seeing such as television, motion picture, and the computer.
The instructional teaching materials makes the teaching and learning easier because it captures the attention of the learners, Facilitates the understanding of abstract concept, Save time by limiting the use of wordy explanation, it provides the learner with opportunity to manipulate object in the environment.
There have been several studies on instructional materials and academic achievement. For instance, Momoh (Isola, 2010), conducted a research on the effects of instructional resources on students’performance in West Africa School Certificate Examinations ( WASCE) in Kwara State. He correlated material resources with academic achievements of students in ten subjects. Data were collected from the subject teachers in relation to the resources employed in the teaching. The achievement of students in WASCE for the past five years were related to the resources available for the teaching of each of the subjects. He concluded that material resources have significant effect on the student’s achievement in each of the subject. In the same manner, Moronfola ( 2002 ) carried out a research in Ilorin Local Government Area of Kwara State. She used questionnaires to collect data on the material resources available for the teaching of some selected subjects in ten secondary schools and related these to the students’achievement in each of the selected subjects and to the amount of resources available for the teaching of the subjects. Findings showed a significant effect of material resources on the students’ academic performance in these subjects.
Study carried out by Nwike and Onyejegbu (2013) revealed that those students taught with instructional materials performed better than those taught without instructional materials. This finding is in line with the work of Olagunju (2000) who found out that there was a remarkable difference in the achievement scores of students taught with various instructional materials and those not exposed to the use of instructional materials. There is therefore a general consensus that instructional materials enhances teaching and learning and leads to better students’achievement. This shows that students learn and perform better when they are taught with instructional materials because the use of instructional materials give the students the opportunity to see, feel and touch the materials during teaching.
Okendu (2012) asserted that regular instructional supervision has a significant bearing on students’academic performance. He also affirmed that adequate supply of instructional resources have significant effect on the students’academic performance.
As asserted by Onyeachu (2008), no matter how well a curriculum plan is, if there are poorly planned and designed instructional materials and other inputs, the aims may not be achieved.
The author is Teacher III at Benigno Aquino National High School, Division Of Tarlac Province