Why are lips red?

BBC Earth (Asia) - - Science -

In the 1960s, zo­ol­o­gist Des­mond Mor­ris sug­gested that a woman’s lips evolved to sig­nal sex­ual re­cep­tive­ness, by mim­ick­ing in­creased blood flow to the gen­i­talia. Re­search has shown that men do find the colour red at­trac­tive, but a 2012 study at the Univer­sity of Kent found that men didn’t pre­fer a red vulva, specif­i­cally, over a pink one. So lip colour might just be a con­se­quence of the thin­ner skin there, which im­proves sen­si­tiv­ity. In gen­eral, yes. Swirling, spi­ralling shoals are usu­ally made up of fish of the same species and same size, and hence age. This is partly to con­fuse preda­tors. Be­ing a sim­i­lar size, shape and colour makes it dif­fi­cult for a hunter – a seal, dol­phin or big­ger fish – to make out and tar­get a sin­gle prey fish. Other ben­e­fits of form­ing shoals in­clude swim­ming ef­fi­ciency and find­ing food. Roughly half of all fish species form shoals at some point and one in four species, in­clud­ing sar­dines, her­ring and an­chovies, live per­ma­nently in shoals and get ag­i­tated when they’re on their own. HS

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