Time For A Cel­e­bra­tion

万寿无疆

ZbBZ (Singapore) - - FRONT PAGE - TEXT NG KING KANG/ 吴庆康

Vacheron Con­stantin cel­e­brates its 260th an­niver­sary with its most com­pli­cated time­piece ever, the Ref­er­ence 57260 钟表界历史最悠久的江诗丹顿,以品牌制表史上最精巧复杂的一款特别定制时计迎接260岁生日。

The folks at Vacheron Con­stantin have been work­ing to­wards this mo­ment for eight years. At its 260th an­niver­sary this year, the watch­maker un­veils its most com­pli­cated watch, that en­cap­su­lates the best of clas­sic watch­mak­ing prin­ci­ples and 21st cen­tury think­ing.

Three of the com­pany’s master watch­mak­ers are the brains be­hind Ref­er­ence 57260, a dou­ble-dial horo­log­i­cal mas­ter­work made up of 57 com­pli­ca­tions, sev­eral of which are new and unique.

They in­clude the mul­ti­ple cal­en­dars and dou­ble ret­ro­grade rat­tra­pante chrono­graph, which had to be cal­cu­lated, de­signed and de­vel­oped from scratch. Thus a com­pletely new cal­i­bre of move­ment was cre­ated, a feat be­fit­ting one of the ear­li­est and great­est names in Swiss horol­ogy, whose pa­trons in­clude Harry Tru­man, Napolean Bon­a­parte, the Duke of Wind­sor and Pope Pius XI.

Even the mech­a­nisms of the more fa­mil­iar com­pli­ca­tions have been mod­i­fied, rein­ter­preted and re­designed in this watch. The re­search and skills de­vel­oped dur­ing its con­struc­tion can be con­sid­ered to be the great­est con­tri­bu­tion to the ad­vance­ment of me­chan­i­cal watch­mak­ing since the 1920s.

Made of solid 18K white gold, pol­ished with glazed bezels on each side, the per­fectly pro­por­tioned case has a three-po­si­tion wind­ing crown with cor­re­spond­ing in­di­ca­tion win­dow on the case band to show the po­si­tion of the crown dur­ing wind­ing or set­ting. A co-ax­ial but­ton in the crown con­trols the start/stop and re­turn-to-zero func­tions of the dou­ble ret­ro­grade chrono­graph and the push-but­ton in the case band at 11 o’clock ac­ti­vates and restarts the rat­tra­pante chrono­graph func­tion.

Of par­tic­u­lar note is the to­tally un­ob­tru­sive and new de­sign of the con­cealed flush-fit alarm wind­ing crown l ocated in the case band at the 4 o’clock po­si­tion. This is a most so­phis­ti­cated method of con­ceal­ing the alarm but­ton so that it does not de­tract from the clean lines of the case.

Each side of the watch has a dial made of solid sil­ver, while the ro­tat­ing discs for the dis­plays are made of alu­minium so as to be light­weight and there­fore re­quire only the slight­est energy to move. The mean­time dial is of reg­u­la­tor style, dis­play­ing the hours, min­utes and sec­onds on sep­a­rate chap­ter rings, a de­sign de­rived from pre­ci­sion reg­u­la­tor clocks such as those used in ob­ser­va­to­ries and lab­o­ra­to­ries. This first dial dis­plays some of the en­tirely new func­tions de­vel­oped by the Vacheron Con­stantin watch­mak­ers.

He­braic Per­pet­ual Cal­en­dar

Of great tech­ni­cal and math­e­mat­i­cal com­plex­ity, the He­braic per­pet­ual cal­en­dar may be con­sid­ered one of the great­est con­tri­bu­tions to me­chan­i­cal watch­mak­ing

of re­cent times. Due to the long-term chang­ing cy­cles of the He­braic cal­en­dar and its dif­fer­ence from the Gre­go­rian cal­en­dar, the mak­ing of a com­plete func­tion­ing me­chan­i­cal He­braic per­pet­ual cal­en­dar in a watch has been im­pos­si­ble un­til now.

The He­braic per­pet­ual cal­en­dar works on the prin­ci­ple of the 19-year Me­tonic cy­cle be­cause 19 years it is al­most ex­actly a mul­ti­ple of the so­lar year and lu­nar month over that pe­riod. Highly com­pli­cated math­e­mat­i­cal cal­cu­la­tions com­bin­ing both the lu­nar months and so­lar year were tran­scribed into not only an op­er­a­tional mech­a­nism but a dis­play that is el­e­gant, log­i­cal and easy to read.

Dou­ble Ret­ro­grade Rat­tra­pante Chrono­graph

Com­pletely new to the world of watch­mak­ing, the bold and vis­ually dra­matic Vacheron Con­stantin ret­ro­grade rat­tra­pante chrono­graph is of an in­no­va­tive de­sign and con­struc­tion. This is the first watch to be made with a rat­tra­pante chrono­graph with dou­ble ret­ro­grade ac­tion, and is not only a highly vis­ual com­pli­ca­tion but me­chan­i­cally in­ge­nious.

This new chrono­graph is read by the user ex­actly in the man­ner of a clas­sic split-sec­onds chrono­graph; how­ever, whilst both hands still work in uni­son and from the same axis, un­like all other split-sec­onds chrono­graphs, the two hands never ac­tu­ally meet but op­er­ate on two sep­a­rate scales on op­pos­ing sides of the dial.

There are two register di­als for the chrono­graph count­ing each elapsed minute up to 60-min­utes and each elapsed hour up to 12-hours so that events of up to 12-hours in du­ra­tion can be ac­cu­rately recorded.

Strik­ing Fea­tures

Sec­tors can be seen on the dial to ei­ther side of the hour chap­ter ring, just above the chrono­graph reg­is­ters. These sec­tors with their cor­re­spond­ing hands are in­di­ca­tors for the se­lec­tion of the mode of chim­ing, mode of alarm strik­ing, and the alarm power-re­serve in­di­ca­tor.

This watch of­fers three strik­ing modes — strik­ing, night si­lence and si­lence. There are two ad­di­tional op­tions — Grande son­nerie (strik­ing the hours and the quar­ters at ev­ery pass­ing quar­ter) and Pe­tite son­nerie (strik­ing the full hours at the hour but only a quar­ter­strike with­out hours on the quar­ters).

In ad­di­tion to the chim­ing mech­a­nism, this model houses an in­te­grally con­nected alarm sys­tem with sep­a­rate power-re­serve in­di­ca­tion. It al­lows a choice be­tween ei­ther a tra­di­tional alarm on an ad­di­tional dif­fer­ently tuned sin­gle gong with sin­gle ham­mer or Westminster car­il­lon full chim­ing alarm in ei­ther Grande or Pe­tite son­nerie mode.

The alarm is set via the wind­ing crown which moves an ad­di­tional alarm hand co-ax­ial with the hour and moon’s age hand.

The Sec­ond Dial

As well as the as­tro­nom­i­cal in­di­ca­tions, sev­eral unique and ma­jor sys­tems de­vel­oped es­pe­cially for this watch are pre­sented here in­clud­ing a 12-hour sec­ond time­zone gov­erned by a dig­i­tal world-time dis­play, a dou­ble per­pet­ual cal­en­dar and a fully vis­i­ble armil­lary sphere tour­bil­lon.

The blue star chart in the up­per half of the dial rep­re­sents the night sky and the star con­stel­la­tions vis­i­ble from the user’s home city, with the months ap­pear­ing around the edge. Con­cen­tric around the outer bor­der is the scale for the ret­ro­grade date of the per­pet­ual cal­en­dar, the hand “fly­ing” back to its start point at the end of each month.

Sub­sidiary di­als for the days of the week and the months flank the star dial and the aper­ture above the month dial shows the num­ber of the year be­tween 1 and 4 in the leap-year cy­cle. Around the edge of the dial are three as­tro­nomic scales which are read us­ing the cen­tral gold hand iden­ti­fied by its sun coun­ter­poise. The out­er­most scale is for the months of the year and their re­spec­tive num­ber of days, while a con­cen­tric scale for the year di­vided into Zo­diac sign pe­ri­ods ad­di­tion­ally in­di­cates the dates of the Ver­nal and Au­tum­nal Equinoxes and the sum­mer and win­ter sol­stices. The four sea­sons are dis­played on a fur­ther in­ner con­cen­tric ring.

The sec­tor above the tour­bil­lon aper­ture in­di­cates Equa­tion of Time show­ing the dis­crep­ancy be­tween true so­lar time and stan­dard mean­time which fluc­tu­ates dur­ing the year but can be ahead by as much as 16 min­utes (around Nov 3) and be­hind by 14 min­utes (around Feb 12).

Another watch­mak­ing first is the 12-hour sec­ond time-zone dial with sep­a­rate day and night in­di­ca­tor win­dow lo­cated in the 10 o’clock po­si­tion: the sec­ond time zone is used in con­junc­tion with the dig­i­tally dis­played world-time func­tion which gives a choice of 24 cities and coun­tries and their re­spec­tive time de­vi­a­tions from Green­wich Mean­time. This dis­creet 12-hour sys­tem of world-time mech­a­nism and dis­play is the first new sys­tem to be de­vel­oped since Louis Cot­tier’s world-time sys­tem with 24-hour in­di­ca­tion in­vented about 1935.

Dual-Func­tion Per­pet­ual Cal­en­dar

The per­pet­ual cal­en­dar sys­tems are amongst the great­est achieve­ments made dur­ing the con­struc­tion of this watch. They rep­re­sent Vacheron Con­stantin’s supreme mas­tery of both highly com­plex math­e­mat­i­cal cal­cu­la­tions and the abil­ity of its watch­mak­ing team to trans­late the cal­cu­la­tions into mech­a­nisms func­tion­ing in com­plete har­mony in re­la­tion to the myr­iad other func­tions. In­clud­ing the He­braic per­pet­ual cal­en­dar

seen on the other dial, this watch has the abil­ity to pro­vide three en­tirely dif­fer­ent per­pet­ual cal­en­dar read­ings.

The fun­da­men­tal new de­par­ture is that two pos­si­ble op­tions are avail­able for the read­ing of the Gre­go­rian per­pet­ual cal­en­dar dis­played on this dial: ei­ther the tra­di­tional Gre­go­rian cal­en­dar or the busi­ness cal­en­dar sys­tem known as ISO 8601, a nu­mer­i­cal sys­tem which utilises 52 weeks and 7 days.

Armil­lary Sphere Tour­bil­lon

The mes­meris­ing Armil­lary tour­bil­lon cage con­tain­ing the watch’s es­cape­ment is vis­i­ble through the aper­ture be­neath the sky chart. This is both tech­ni­cally ex­cit­ing and vis­ually dra­matic. The three-di­men­sional con­stantly ro­tat­ing sphere moves del­i­cately and si­mul­ta­ne­ously in three di­rec­tions. Ap­pro­pri­ately, the watch­maker has also cho­sen to use a spher­i­cal bal­ance spring which not only adds to the el­e­gance of the mech­a­nism, its spe­cial prop­er­ties con­trib­ute to the ac­cu­racy of the watch.

This tour­bil­lon was named “armil­lary” be­cause it is rem­i­nis­cent of the cir­cles and rings of the sci­en­tific in­stru­ment known as the armil­lary sphere. It was placed in the sec­ond dial side com­ple­ment­ing the as­tro­nom­i­cal func­tions to sug­gest the ap­par­ent move­ment of the stars, the sun and the eclip­tic around the earth. The frame of the cage is in­ge­niously con­structed to in­cor­po­rate the Vacheron Con­stantin com­pany sym­bol of the Mal­tese Cross, which is vis­i­ble once ev­ery 15 sec­onds dur­ing the tour­bil­lon’s ro­ta­tion.

The Ref­er­ence 57260 with its many firsts is with­out doubt a crown­ing achieve­ment for Vacheron Con­stantin, a fa­bled watch­maker with an un­yield­ing com­mit­ment to pre­ci­sion, metic­u­lous crafts­man­ship, el­e­gance in de­sign and the ad­vance­ment of high tech­nol­ogy. The cre­ation of Ref­er­ence 57260 seals its place among the best of the best. 江诗丹顿是世上历史最悠久的钟表制造商,自1755年于日内瓦创立以来,从未停止生产。 江诗丹顿在整个20世纪推出了无数经典名作,从简约典雅的款式到精雕细琢的复杂时计;从日常佩戴的款式到名贵的钻石腕表,每一款均代表瑞士高级钟表登峰造极的制表工艺,体现了江诗丹顿在世界钟表业界卓尔不群的地位,以及其对技术和美学的追求。

今年是江诗丹顿260周年大庆,品牌聚集了三位制表大师花费八年时间,制作了一枚江诗丹顿制表史上最精巧复杂的特别定制时计——编号57260。这枚时计糅合了经典的制表工艺和21世纪的思维模式,是一款前所未见的杰作,共配备57项复杂功能,包括多项独一无二的全新功能。

编号57260的全新57项复杂功能,包括多种日历显示和双逆跳双秒追针计时装置等,这些功能没有先例可循,因此必须重新计算、设计和研发。表壳上的三段上链表冠及其对应的指示窗位于表圈上,可显示表冠上链或设置状态。表冠上的同轴按钮可控制双逆跳计时功能的开始、停止及重置功能,表壳11点位置的按钮可以启动或重启双秒追针计时功能。值得一提的是,低调的全新隐藏式上链闹铃旋钮设计,位于表壳4点钟位置。

希伯来万年历

这枚具有完整希伯来万年历功能的时计,结合了朔望月和回归年的超复杂计算功能。希伯来万年 历以19年默冬周期为计算准则,因为19年刚好是一个回归年和朔望月的倍数。这款时计的默冬周期(或称金数)显示区域位于3点钟位置的计时表盘,同时,犹太教赎罪日也在每年的格里高利历中有所标注,由位于6点钟位置的相应逆跳指针指示,每19年返回起始点,这一指示区也每19年更换一次。

要保持12个朔望月和回归年一致,就须要在19年的周期里加入七次第13个月份。这枚时计的巧妙之处在于不仅将此历法特性考虑在内,更通过指针指向12/13,显示该年是12或13个月。该指针位于9点钟位置的分钟计时盘和计时指针处于同一轴心。

在希伯来历中,朔望月的天数固定为29或30天交替。但赫色汪月和基斯流月则根据年份,可以是29天或30天。在这里,日期自动校正功能位于犹太教赎罪日和秒针指示区。日期的两侧,两个显示窗则分别以希伯来文显示希伯来历的星期和月份。在小时指示圈内,还设有四种月相和以指示29.5305882日为一个周期的月龄指针。江诗丹顿月相系统仅须每1027年校正一次。

同轴双逆跳计时

这是首枚具有同轴双逆跳功能的双秒追针计时功能时计,借助双秒追针计时功能清晰显示时间,两根指针同轴同步,与其他所有双秒追针计时完全不同。这两根指针永不相交,而是在表盘两侧范围内各自运行,被形容为“分离式”双秒追针

计时。江诗丹顿还特别设计并计算了两根细长计时指针的重量和平衡度,确保时计在运行时的稳定性和精准度。时计有两个计时盘,一个最长计时时间为60分钟,另一个则是12小时,可精准记录12小时之内持续发生的事件。

报时

该时计提供三种报时模式: 1. 报时:报时机械装置会以同样的方式在整刻时自动报时,与时钟完全一致。五个音准极佳的音锤和五个钢质音簧,可演奏出与伦敦西敏寺“大本钟”一样的钟声。2. 夜间静音:报时功能可在晚上10时至早上8时之间转为自动静音。这是首个无须手动调节钟声或静音选项便可自动实现静音功能的系统。3. 静音:不需要报时功能时可将其关闭。另外还有两种模式可选择:大自鸣——每次整刻时报出整时整刻时间;小自鸣——在整时报出整时时间,但在整刻仅报出整刻时间,不再重复报出整时时间。任何时候须重复报时,使用者可调整表圈上的滑片来启动。

闹铃

除报时机械装置外,该时计还装载了完整的闹铃系统,配备独立的动力储存显示。江诗丹顿此项功能的最大特性,在于使用者可自主选择传统的单击音簧闹铃、大自鸣或小自鸣的西敏寺报时钟声。

第二表盘和其他功能

除天文指示外,此款时计还具有许多特别创制的独特系统,包括数码显示的世界时间,以及12小时制第二时区显示、双万年历和超凡绝伦的可见球体形浑天仪式陀飞轮。表盘上半部分的蓝色星空图可展示使用者设定城市的星空以及可见星座的准确位置,星空图边缘环绕着月份指示盘。最外圈的刻度是万年历逆跳日期指示,每月末指针会自动“飞”返回起点。星空表盘侧面的辅助表盘设有星期和月份,在月份显示表盘上方的窗孔,则根据闰年周期显示1至4之间的数字年份。表盘边缘有三圈天文刻度,透过对应的中央金色太阳砝码指针读取。最外圈的刻度为月份以及各自的天数,中间一圈的刻度为黄道十二宫和春秋分及冬夏至指示,最内圈则为四季指示。

陀飞轮框架上方设有时间等式,显示真太阳时和平太阳时之间的差异,每年真太阳时最多比平太阳时快16分钟(约在11月3日左右),最多可慢平太阳时约14分钟(约在2月12日左右);每年只有四天真太阳时和平太阳时的时长相同。陀飞轮框架两侧分别设有使用者设定城市的日出及日落时间、昼长和夜长指示。这些指示实际上也与格里高利历相关,根据每日白天和夜晚小时数计算,而不是制式的时间。

置了独立昼夜指示窗的12小时制第二时区表盘。另一个在制表业首创的,是在10点钟位置设第二时区采用数字显示世界时间功能,可选择24个国家及城市以及各自与格林威治标准时间的时差。这项全新精密的12小时制世界时间机械装置和显示方式,是自1935年Louis Cot­tier发明著名24小时制指示世界时间后的首次技术革新,可谓重要突破。

双重功能万年历

万年历系统是这枚时计所取得的最大成就,包括在另外一面表盘的希伯来历在内,这枚时计能够提供三种完全不同的万年历指示。这个重要的创新在于表盘上显示的格里高利万年历有两种不同的读法——既可作为传统格里高利历读取,也可通过国际标准ISO 8601日历读取,后者共有52周,每周七天。格里高利万年历可自动校准每月日期和闰年日期,通过逆跳日期、星期、月份表盘读取,并且在位于逆跳日期区域右侧的闰年显示窗,读取1至4之间的数字。国际标准ISO 8601商务日历是一种由国际标准化组织推出的特殊系统,主要用于国际金融业务,创立这一日期系统的目的在于提供一种清晰的日期和时间表达方式,避免日期和时间数字在转换中出现错误,特别是可避免不同国家在日期

和时间书写顺序习惯不同而产生的信息误传。使用国际标准ISO系统表达时间须要采用24小时制计时方法,如有必要还须说明所在时区。所有这些功能在此表盘上均清晰体现。这个精巧系统的另一机械装置选择,便是可将ISO日历模式切换成传统日历模式。传统日历年由1月1日起始,至12月31日结束。ISO计算模式同样也从1月1日开始,将日历第一天作为一周天数的计算基准。如果年历显示全年第一天为1月1日,星期四,那么日历将会在周数表盘上显示W1,并在天数显示窗显示1(星期四是全年的第一天)。

浑天仪式陀飞轮

时计的浑天仪式陀飞轮框架包括可见的擒纵机构,其机械装置是可同时向三个方向不停精准流畅旋转的三维球体。此款陀飞轮之所以命名为“浑天仪”,因为其圆环交织的外观与科学仪器浑天仪球极为相似。它被置于第二表盘以完善天文功能,从而可直观行星、太阳以及环绕地球的黄道运动。

配合江诗丹顿260周年大庆,品牌花费八年时间制作了一枚江诗丹顿制表史上最精巧复杂的特别定制时计——编号 57260。

The per­fectly pro­por­tioned case has a three-po­si­tion wind­ing crown with cor­re­spond­ing in­di­ca­tion win­dow on the case band to show the po­si­tion of the crown dur­ing wind­ing or set­ting.

Ref­er­ence 57260 is the most com­pli­cated time­piece made by Vacheron Con­stantin.

编号57260表壳上的三段上链表冠及其对应指示窗位于表圈上,可显示表冠上链或设置状态。

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