浪漫莱茵寻堡记RO­MAN­TIC CRUISE DOWN THE RHINE

莱茵河中游一段延绵65公里的水路被誉为“浪漫莱茵”,迂回蜿蜒,风景壮阔。河的两岸,还因为拥有超过40栋中古世纪城堡和许多秀丽的葡萄村庄而在2002年被列入世界遗产。A 65km-long stretch of the River Rhine of­fers ex­pan­sive and spec­tac­u­lar scenery, with more than 40 me­di­ae­val cas­tles and pic­turesque grape-grow­ing vil­lages lin­ing its banks

ZbBZ (Singapore) - - INSIGHT - TEXT 胡文雁/ WOO MUN NGAN

近傍晚时分在德国小镇布赖萨赫(Breisach)上了船,心情不禁荡漾起来。这是人间四月天,风在春的光艳中交舞着变,脚下潺潺莱茵河,浟湙潋滟,浮天无岸,远处夕阳快要下山,被晚霞映红了的河水在氤氲中变得缥缈,一切竟像梦境一样。

莱茵河于我,就是梦中的那一条河,流淌着神话、传说,曾赋予多少文人墨客浪漫的遐想。你可以在拜伦、大仲马、雨果、席勒的文章里看到它 的身影,也可以在贝多芬、舒曼、布拉姆斯、瓦格纳的音乐里听到它的呼吸。它是文学和音乐的缪斯,美丽而遥不可及。但我终于掂量着它的分量登上了Uni­world寰宇河轮的S.S. An­toinet­te号,开始期待已久的莱茵河之旅。八天七夜,全程顺流而下,沿途停靠德国城市凯尔(Kehl)、曼海姆(Mannheim)、吕德斯海姆(Rudesheim)、科布伦茨(Koblenz)、科隆(Cologne),最后在荷兰阿 姆斯特丹下船。

河轮与游轮不一样,吨位小,载客量不多,只在内河间穿行,没有无边无际的壮阔风景,却有隽秀俊美的旖旎风光,是漫游莱茵河的最好方式。

作为西欧第一大河,莱茵河全长1233公里,源起瑞士境内的阿尔卑斯山麓,流经列支敦士登、奥地利、法国、德国,最后在荷兰鹿特丹注入北海。

按原先的行程安排,河轮应从瑞士巴塞尔出

发,顺流进入德国与法国南部边界,然后在赖因斯特滕(Rhe­in­stet­ten)转入德国境内,之后是从南到北一路贯穿德国领土的1000公里水道,几乎游尽整条莱茵河。可惜因巴塞尔的船闸正在施工装修中,我们只得改道从巴塞尔乘车到布赖萨赫上船,错过了莱茵河在巴塞尔东注北涌穿城而过的一段风光。

这段水路,连同作为德国和法国南部边界界河的河段,为前莱茵,左岸是法国领土,右岸是德国腹地,中间有着大大小小的桥梁。一秒钟前你还在法国呼吸着新鲜空气,下一秒你已踩在德国绿油油的草地上,微妙的地理环境,愈发凸显莱茵河之美,美在它瞬间就能漫过不可逾越的边界和沟壑。

但莱茵河最为迷人的风景还不在上游,而集中在中游地带,介于宾根(Bin­gen)和科布伦茨(Koblenz)之间一段延绵65公里的“浪漫莱茵”。莱茵河在这里穿过了莱茵河谷,迂回蜿蜒,一波三折,拐个弯就是一道风景。河的两岸,还因为拥有超过40栋中古世纪城堡和许多秀丽的葡萄园村庄而在2002年被列入世界遗产。

我们的船,在第五天一早已停靠在吕德斯海姆。这是德国黑森州的一个小镇,人口还不到一万,但名气很大,主要因为它是美丽的莱茵河中游河谷的起始处,对岸就是宾根。

这座美丽的小镇,有山有水,还有神秘的古堡和迷人的小巷,一眼望去,漫山遍野都是大片大片的葡萄园,穿梭于小镇中,随时随地都能品尝到当地精酿的德国雷司令。

当天我们起了个早,上岸后先参观沃洛 斯城堡(Schloss Voll­rads)。这是位于莱茵高(Rhein­gau)地区最古老的酒庄之一,早在1211年,这里就有了第一次葡萄酒销售记录。酒庄的标志性建筑是一座雄伟的方塔,建于古罗马废墟之上,周围都是画中有诗的田园风景。

吕德斯海姆就在莱茵河边上,具有典型欧洲小镇风情,一排排的中世纪木桁架建筑(又叫木筋房)美不胜收,其民居、碉堡、木桥、城池仿佛是从童话故事里走出来。

小镇鼎鼎有名的画眉鸟巷(Drossel­gasse)异常迷人,宽不过3米,长140米,却有着琳琅满目的特色小店、餐馆、啤酒屋,游人如织,一步一景。离小巷不远处,还有德国第一座音乐盒博物馆Siegfrieds Mech­a­nis­ches Musikkabi­nett,收藏了18世纪至今各种造型音乐盒和古老留声机,其精密的机械运作、精巧的雕刻装饰,简直可媲美艺术品。我在里头流连忘返,差点耽误了上船的时间。

下午4点,S.S. An­toinet­te号呼啸着开船,朝科布伦茨出发,驶向莱茵河最美的一段。大伙儿情绪这时也都亢奋起来,抵御着寒风聚集在甲板上,图其视野开阔,可一边听着河轮的广播介绍,一边欣赏两岸风光,只觉目不暇给。

莱茵河在这里开始曲折地一路向北流。老实说和一些大山大水比起来,这里的山并非特别的青,水也不是特别的秀,但两岸山头几乎每一两公里就出现许多中世纪城堡,构成一幅特殊的自然风貌。它们或残破,或完好,曾有过英雄在此据险自 豪,也有过海盗在此纵横驰骤,各种各样动人的神话和传说,让人目眩神迷。这段水路古迹异乎寻常的多,沿途还不断冒出一些古色古香的教堂和村庄,以及蔓延在峡谷和山丘之上的大片葡萄园,如诗如画,难怪成为歌德梦中的乐园,剧作家克莱斯特心中大自然的乐土。

莱茵河虽未起源于德国,最终也流出德国,但是整条莱茵河最重要的自然美景却都集中在德国境內,单是中游这段水路就叫人心情澎湃。有团友笑说:“我们的旅费,就为这个付的。”大家听了,都笑成一团。

这些散布在莱茵河东西两岸的城堡,每一座都叫得出名字,且都伴随着美丽动人的故事和传说。比如屹立在葡萄酒村庄阿斯曼豪森(Ass­man­nshause)对面的莱茵石堡(Rhe­in­stein)建于14世纪,原为罗马帝国皇帝的夏宫,17世纪时重建,改为新歌德式样。1975年歌剧演员赫尔曼赫切尔(Her­mann Hecher)将其买下,经修复后对外开放,使之成为热门景点。

屹立在水中央的普发兹格拉芬斯坦堡(Pfalz­grafen­stein)谁都不会错过,它建于1327年,直到1866年都被作为征税站,在普鲁士和法国之战,普军以此为桥头堡渡河打败法军而使这座古堡威名远扬。

又如位于莱茵河最险峻处罗蕾莱礁石(Lorelei)不远的的猫堡(Katz)和鼠堡(Maus)遥遥相望,在14世纪时起到严密的牵制和防御作用,是莱茵河中游很重要的军事要塞。德国诗人海涅叙事诗《罗蕾莱》所写的,也就是传说中莱茵河上的女

妖。

这些古堡,有的已成为废墟遗址,孤冷地眺望着莱茵河不语,有的则在抢救中保存下来成为酒店或观光景点。船在科布伦茨靠岸的下午,我专程游了一趟马克斯城堡(Marks­burg),因为人们都说:“如果你只想参观一座莱茵河城堡,那一定是马克斯堡,因为它是唯一一座未受战火摧毁从中世纪就被完整保存下来的古堡”。

通往古堡之路都是陡峭和高低不平的石阶,到终于登上城堡,居高望远,莱茵河在眼前一路蜿蜒,并在要塞处突然来个大转弯,河谷地貌无比壮阔,与河轮上欣赏到的景致又是一种截然不同的风貌。站在城堡内,感受着中古时期骑士们的战马嘶啸,仿佛也能感受到刀光剑影的泣血杀戮,以及英雄美人的爱情故事。

接下来的一段莱茵河,又回归来时的宁静,但它的精彩还没完结。河轮停靠的每一个地方,都有岸上观光,还有专业导游导览。这些沿岸城镇别具风情,说大不不,景点也很集中,融汇了建筑、人文、历史之美,如沿岸游历的法国城市科尔马 (Col­mar)、斯特拉斯堡(Stras­bourg)、德国城市海德堡(Hei­del­berg)、科隆(Cologne),都值得大书特书,写成另一篇游记了。

最后要补上一笔,这是我第一次参加河轮之旅,整体体验出乎意料的好,无论食宿和岸上导览观光都特别有质感,完全改变了我对“游船”是属于退休人士的观念。

My heart soared as I boarded my River Rhine cruise around dusk in the small Ger­man town of Breisach. This was in April and spring had brought along with it daz­zling changes in the air. The wa­ters of the gur­gling Rhine glit­tered at my feet and there ap­peared to be no limit to the broad skies over­head. The sun ap­peared ethe­real, cast­ing its crim­son rays onto the wa­ters of the river. Ev­ery­thing felt like a dream.

To me, the Rhine is the river of my dreams. It has fed leg­ends and myths, as well as the ro­man­tic rever­ies of many a writer and com­poser. It is the beau­ti­ful muse of lit­er­a­ture and mu­sic: beau­ti­ful, yet out of reach. But then, I fi­nally made the move and boarded the S.S. An­toinette, owned by Uni­world River Cruises, for my cruise down the Rhine. For eight days and seven nights, we sailed down­stream and made stops at Kehl, Mannheim, Rudesheim, Koblenz and Cologne be­fore fi­nally disem­bark­ing at Am­s­ter­dam.

Un­like cruises at sea, river cruises use much smaller ships that carry far fewer pas­sen­gers and you do not get a bound­less sea view. How­ever, you are com­pen­sated with the beau­ti­ful scenery you sail past and a cruise along the river is re­ally the best way to ex­pe­ri­ence the Ro­man­tic Rhine.

The Rhine is the long­est river in Western Europe with a length of 1,233km. It orig­i­nates in the Swiss Alps and flows through Liecht­en­stein, Aus­tria, France and Ger­many and into the North Sea at Rot­ter­dam in the Nether­lands.

The orig­i­nal itin­er­ary of my river cruise cov­ers al­most the en­tire length of the Rhine, be­gin­ning at Basel in Switzer­land and trav­el­ling past the south­ern French-Ger­man bor­der be­fore en­ter­ing Ger­many at Rhe­in­stet­ten. The ves­sel then trav­els north­wards for over 1,000km through Ger­many. Un­for­tu­nately, as the wa­ter locks at Basel were un­der main­te­nance, we had to drive from Basel to Breisach to board the cruise, thus miss­ing the sec­tion of the Rhine that would have taken us through the city of Basel.

The Rhine’s best scenery is not found in its up­per reaches but in its mid­dle sec­tion, a 65km­long sec­tion be­tween Bin­gen and Koblenz known as the “Ro­man­tic Rhine”. Here, the

river me­an­ders through the Rhine Val­ley, with new vis­tas ap­pear­ing at ev­ery turn of the cor­ner. The banks of the river were listed as a World Her­itage Site in 2002 thanks to the more than 40 me­di­ae­val cas­tles and sev­eral beau­ti­ful grape-grow­ing vil­lages along the way.

Our boat made a stop at Rudesheim on the morn­ing of Day 5, a small town in the Black For­est re­gion of Ger­many with a pop­u­la­tion of less than 10,000.

Blessed with both moun­tain and river scapes, as well as mys­te­ri­ous cas­tles and charm­ing al­leys, the town is filled with vine­yards as far as the eye can see. Travers­ing from one town to the next, one can eas­ily sam­ple ex­cel­lent lo­cal Ries­lings.

We woke up early that morn­ing and, af­ter ar­riv­ing on shore, we first vis­ited the Vol­lards Cas­tle. Home to one of the old­est winer­ies in the Rhein­gau re­gion, the first wine sale here was recorded in 1211. The land­mark struc­ture of the wine es­tate is a ma­jes­tic square tower built upon Ro­man-era ru­ins, sur­rounded by a pic­turesque pas­toral land­scape.

Rudesheim is a typ­i­cal Euro­pean town with streets lined by rows of beau­ti­ful me­di­ae­val-era wooden-truss struc­tures. Look­ing at the lo­cal res­i­dences, bunkers, wooden bridges and moat, you might be for­given for think­ing you’ve en­tered a fairy­tale world.

The fa­mous Drossel­gasse is ex­cep­tion­ally charm­ing. A street that is just 3m wide and 140m long, it holds a daz­zling va­ri­ety of spe­cial­ity shops, restau­rants and beer houses. Just a stone’s throw away from here is Ger­many’s first mu­seum of mu­sic boxes, the Siegfrieds Mech­a­nis­ches Musikkabi­nett. The ex­quis­ite dec­o­ra­tions on th­ese de­vices make them prac­ti­cally ob­jects of art in their own right. I lin­gered a lit­tle too long here and al­most missed the boat.

At 4pm, we set off for Koblenz and the most beau­ti­ful sec­tion of the Rhine. The ex­cite­ment on board was pal­pa­ble as peo­ple started con­gre­gat­ing on the deck. There, we took in the view of both shores while lis­ten­ing to the com­men­tary on the pub­lic an­nounce­ment sys­tem.

The river is lined with a dense con­stel­la­tion of her­itage sites, and me­di­ae­val churches and vil­lages are a com­mon sight along the way. The vine­yards that hug the val­leys and hills tell of a long his­tory of en­gage­ment be­tween man and na­ture. Lit­tle won­der it be­came a won­der­land in the dreams of writer Jo­hann Wolf­gang von Goethe and a nat­u­ral par­adise in the heart of drama­tist Hein­rich von Kleist.

While the Rhine does not orig­i­nate in Ger­many and also even­tu­ally flows out of Ger­many, the most im­por­tant nat­u­ral sights of the river are con­cen­trated within Ger­many, and the sights of the Mid­dle Rhine Val­ley leads one’s heart to surge. A fel­low trav­eller on the boat quipped: “We paid our fare pre­cisely for this.”

The cas­tles scat­tered along the banks of the Rhine each come with their own beau­ti­ful mov­ing sto­ries. Take, for in­stance the Rhe­in­stein Cas­tle. Built

as a sum­mer palace for the Holy Ro­man Em­pire in the 14th cen­tury, this was re­built in the 17th cen­tury in the New Gothic style. Opera singer Her­mann Hecher pur­chased the cas­tle in 1975 and opened it to the pub­lic af­ter restora­tion works.

Pfalz­grafen­stein Cas­tle is an­other must-visit site. Lo­cated on an islet, the cas­tle was built in 1327 and was a tax col­lec­tion sta­tion un­til 1866. Dur­ing the Franco-Prus­sian War, the Prus­sians used the cas­tle as a beach­head to cross the river and sub­se­quently de­feat the French.

The Burg Katz (“Cat Cas­tle”) and Burg Maus (“Mouse Cas­tle”) were key fortresses from the 14th cen­tury. They are not far from The Lorelei, a 132m-high, steep slate rock on the right bank of the River Rhine and also the most treach­er­ous spot along the river. Ger­man poet Hein­rich Heine’s nar­ra­tive poem Lore­lai is about the fe­male de­mon that al­legedly haunts the Rhine.

Some of th­ese cas­tles are es­sen­tially ru­ins that look over the Rhine in si­lence, while oth­ers have be­come ho­tels or, af­ter be­ing con­served, tourist des­ti­na­tions. In the af­ter­noon, the boat berthed at Koblenz and I took the op­por­tu­nity to visit the cas­tle Marks­burg be­cause if you wish to visit only one cas­tle on the Rhine, it would be this one; it is the only cas­tle that has been pre­served since me­di­ae­val times and which has sur­vived the rav­ages of war.

A se­ries of steep and un­even steps lead to the cas­tle. When one fi­nally makes it to the cas­tle and takes in the view, one sees the me­an­der­ing Rhine take an acute turn around the fortress. The sight of the river val­ley is a truly awe-in­spir­ing one and com­pletely dif­fer­ent from the scenery that one sees on the boat. Stand­ing in the cas­tle, one can al­most hear the bray­ing war horses of the me­di­ae­val war­riors and see the bloody cam­paigns of war un­fold along­side the love sto­ries of yore.

We re­turned to rel­a­tive calm with the next sec­tion of the Rhine. How­ever, there was more in store for us. At each stop, we were taken on shore for sight­see­ing. Th­ese river­side towns, which all have their own dis­tinc­tive char­ac­ters, are highly com­pact with the main sights con­cen­trated in a small area. In th­ese towns, such as Col­mar and Stras­bourg in France, and Hei­del­burg and Cologne in Ger­many, one can see the beauty of ar­chi­tec­ture, cul­ture and his­tory. If I have to write about my ex­pe­ri­ences in each and ev­ery one of them, I will have to write an­other ar­ti­cle al­to­gether.

This was the first time I had trav­elled on a river cruise and the ex­pe­ri­ence was in­cred­i­ble. I was most im­pressed by both the ac­com­mo­da­tion and guided land tours avail­able. Who said cruis­ing was for re­tirees?

雄踞在山崖上的莱茵石堡,原为罗马帝国的夏宫,现为莱茵河的热门景点,在城堡上可以眺望到宾根峡谷和葡萄酒村庄阿斯曼豪森的美妙景色。Rhe­in­stein Cas­tle, built on top of a cliff, was orig­i­nally a sum­mer palace dur­ing the Holy Ro­man Em­pire. To­day, it is a tourist hotspot where vis­i­tor can gaze upon Binger Loch and...

从盘踞山上的城堡居高临下俯视孕育德国文明的莱茵大河,有一种气拔山河的恢弘气势。There is a sense of mag­nif­i­cence when one looks down upon the Rhine, the cra­dle of Ger­man civil­i­sa­tion, from a cas­tle perched on top of a hill. (Photo: Woo Mun Ngan)

画眉鸟巷是吕德斯海姆镇最著名,也是最美丽的小巷,狭窄的街道两旁都是极富德国特色的葡萄酒屋和个性小店,五彩斑斓的房子美不胜收,穿梭其中有如置身童话世界。The Drossel­gasse is the most fa­mous — and pret­ti­est — street in Rudesheim am Rhein. The nar­row street is lined on both sides with dis­tinc­tively Ger­man wine bars and spe­cial­ity...

河轮在内河间川行,没有无边无际的壮阔风景,却有隽秀俊美的旖旎风光,是漫游莱茵河的最好方式。The cruise trav­els along in­land wa­ter­ways. While there are no ex­pan­sive views like at sea, beau­ti­ful scenes still await the trav­eller. Cruis­ing is the best way to tour the Rhine. (Photo: Uni­world)

S.S.An­toinet­te河轮装潢典雅,提供一价全包式服务。The S.S. An­toinette is el­e­gantly dec­o­rated and pro­vides a host of ser­vices at a flat price. (Photo: Uni­world)

Uni­world寰宇河轮堪称河上的精品酒店,其舒适度和服务水平,改变了我对“游船”的观念。Uni­world’s cruise ves­sels are ver­i­ta­ble ho­tels on wa­ter. The com­fort and ser­vice I ex­pe­ri­enced on board have changed my per­cep­tion of cruis­ing. (Photo: Uni­world)

马克斯堡立于德国城市布劳巴赫的丘陵之上,是莱茵河谷唯一未曾遭到破坏的中世纪城堡。这座雄伟庄严的防御要塞建于14世纪,至今仍保留着完整的内部空间如厨房、骑士大厅、小教堂、军械库、酒窖、壁垒和塔楼。Marks­burg is lo­cated on a hill in the Ger­man city of Braubach. Built in the 14th cen­tury, this im­pres­sive and stately ed­i­fice is the only me­di­ae­val-era...

沃洛斯城堡是全世界最古老的酒庄之一,历史学家推估,城堡的指标性建筑塔楼,是建于西元100年或200年间的罗马时期堡垒。The Schloss Voll­rads is one of the world’s old­est winer­ies. His­to­ri­ans be­lieve the land­mark tower of the com­pound was built dur­ing the Ro­man era, be­tween 100 and 200 CE. (Photo: Woo Mun Ngan)

莱茵河穿过峡谷,河道变得蜿蜒曲折,沿岸有许多美丽的小镇和大片碧绿的葡萄园,风光之美令人目不暇接。欧洲还没有哪一段大河流域能像萊茵河中游,荟萃了如此浑然一体的自然与人文景观。The Rhine me­an­ders through nar­row river val­leys. The scenery is spec­tac­u­lar, with beau­ti­ful towns and ver­dant vine­yards dot­ting its shores. There is no other ma­jor...

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