From dictatorship to democracy
It’s no coincidence that Ghana has emerged as one of the most peaceful nations on the globe, writes
Black Africa’s first independent nation celebrated its 60th anniversary of independence this week. A pioneer in many ways, Ghana was the first country in sub-Saharan Africa to secure independence from Britain – on March 6 1957. Ghana’s post-independence experience is also in many ways the African post-colonial story. Former president Kwame Nkrumah was a founding member of the Organisation of African Unity, the precursor to the African Union. He was also the most influential voice in the Pan-African movement in the early years of independence.
The Pan-Africanist flame burnt brightest at the height of agitation for independence, drawing in the likes of Kenneth Kaunda of Zambia, Jomo Kenyatta of Kenya, Hastings Kamuzu Banda of Malawi and Julius Nyerere of Tanzania. But the Pan-Africanist rhetoric was soon extinguished as its leaders secured independence for their countries.
Ghana’s anniversary is worth celebrating. Over the past six decades, Ghana has transitioned from military dictatorships to a well-functioning democracy, while its economy has seen both boom and near bust. Its story offers lessons and hope that Africa can fashion its own dignified path to peace and democracy.
Nkrumah’s vision for Ghana was founded on the nationalist demands that drove agitation against colonialism. He sought to steer his young country to significant progress in health and education. Also on the new leader’s agenda were other social and economic issues confronting the country.
This vision was embedded in his seven-year development plan presented to Parliament on March 11 1964. In his view, the 1963 to 1970 plan would, ultimately, bring Ghana to the threshold of a modern state based on a highly organised and efficient agricultural and industrial programme.
Nkrumah believed he could obliterate the dependency-driven colonial economy he inherited, which reduced Ghana to an importer of finished goods bought at exorbitant prices, and an exporter of raw materials sold cheaply. In its place would be an industrialised economy modelled along a socialist production and distribution system that would make Ghana self-sufficient and selfreliant.
But we will never know what his success would have looked like. Nkrumah’s vision was cut short by a pro-Western military coup in 1966. The planning of it was known to the US, which considered Nkrumah to be a significant threat to its interests in Africa.
The acting special assistant for National Security Affairs, RW Komer, praised the coup as “…another example of a fortuitous windfall. Nkrumah was doing more to undermine our interests than any other black African.”
About 50 years after his overthrow, however, Nkrumah remains a household name in Ghana because of his investments in education, health and energy. Many of his contributions to other important sectors, such as the building of the Akosombo Dam, the AccraTema motorway, the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital and the University of Cape Coast, continue to support the economy today.
Nkrumah’s overthrow in 1966 was followed by four military takeovers in 1972, 1978, 1979 and 1981. Two democratically elected governments, established in 1969 and 1979, were overthrown by the military. Eventually, the current succession of democratic elections was established in 1993.
In its early years, Ghana’s flirtation with socialism dominated its politics. However, the civilian governments that followed steered the country on to a capitalist economic path in which the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund often dictated the pace.
Yet the country has been unable to achieve the envisioned selfreliant and self-sufficient economic policies.
But it’s not all doom and gloom. Ghana has made remarkable progress as one of the success stories in Africa’s democratic project over the past 25 years. Political power has changed three times – all important milestones:
From the ruling National Democratic Congress (NDC) to the New Patriotic Party (NPP) in 2001; From the ruling NPP to the NDC in 2009; and From the ruling NDC back to the NPP in January. With these three turnovers under its belt, Ghana is a satisfactorily consolidated democracy.
Ghanaians have cast aside the authoritarian politics of the past. In its place is expanded political space that has helped to shape and broaden the frontiers of rights. Free speech and association are guaranteed, civil society organisations have greater influence over policy-making and the media is free to perform its gatekeeping.
It’s no coincidence that Ghana has emerged as one of the most peaceful nations on the globe. According to the 2016 Global Peace Index, Ghana – ranked 44th – is more peaceful than France (ranked 46th) and the UK (ranked 47th).
Ghana has also made progress in numerous measures of wellbeing, especially in poverty reduction and the provision of health and education. It’s one of the few countries in the world that has recorded a significant reduction in poverty.
The healthcare scorecard is also one of the most impressive in subSaharan Africa. Ghana is one of the few countries with a universal health insurance scheme, and there’s a great deal to show from investments in the health sector. The country ranked seventh out of 153 countries on measles immunisation between 1990 and 2008.
But many challenges remain. Economic growth has been swinging like a pendulum. More than a decade ago, the country’s economy was growing at 7%, then roared ahead with a growth rate of more than 14% in 2011.
Since then, growth has declined considerably. In 2015, it expanded by just 4%.
Currently, Ghana is under an International Monetary Fund bailout programme because of its inability to contain its huge budget deficit, rising inflation and falling currency.
The jury is still out on whether the country can turn its economic fortunes around again. Unemployment rates are alarmingly high – an estimated 48% – and the country faces a power crisis, high depreciation of the currency and high interest rates.
Nevertheless, Ghana is still very much the rising star in some spheres – it’s just struggling in others, like many of its African peers. Ateku is a doctoral candidate in international relations at the University of Nottingham in the UK
COMMITTED TO THE CAUSE Ghanaian dancers prepare ahead of the celebration of the 60th anniversary of the country’s independence at Independence Square in Accra on Monday