The relative contribution of SA’s manufacturing to GDP has almost halved since 1990, leading to pessimism about the sector’s future. Currently manufacturing directly contributes only 13% to GDP, compared with 20% of GDP in comparable economies. McKinsey’s analysis suggests that by 2030, exports of advanced manufactured products could grow to more than R700bn, from R190bn in 2013. The opportunity exists in the automotive, industrial machinery and equipment, and chemicals sectors, and would require manufacturers to pursue new markets and improve innovation and productivity. natural gas (LNG). Although SA’s own shale gas resources are yet to be proven, they could potentially create an additional 40 000 to 102 000 jobs and would require investment of between R600bn and R1tr, according to McKinsey.