Signs and symp­toms of frac­tu­res

George Herald - - Schools | Skole -

Exe­r­ci­se is one of the ways to im­pro­ve your phy­si­cal wel­l­being and it aids in gre­at me­a­su­re to get rid of ai­l­ments, a­ches and pains. Fol­low the exe­r­ci­se pro­gram­me pro­vi­ded by the bi­o­ki­ne­ti­cis­ts at A­ni­ne van der West­hui­zen Bi­o­ki­ne­ti­cist in Ge­or­ge and feel the dif­fe­ren­ce. This week bi­o­ki­ne­ti­cist Me­gan van Huys­steen con­ti­nues the se­ries on lo­wer leg in­ju­ries.

Bro­ken bo­nes are no laug­hing mat­ter. This week I'll be dis­cus­sing frac­tu­res of the leg. The fe­mur is a very strong bo­ne and doe­sn't frac­tu­re that e­a­si­ly. The lo­wer leg is ma­de up of two bo­nes, the ti­bia and fi­bu­la. The ti­bia is the lar­ger of the two bo­nes. It sup­ports most of your weig­ht and is an im­por­tant part of both the knee joint and an­kle joint. The fi­bu­la bo­ne is the smal­ler of the two leg bo­nes.

Frac­tu­res va­ry gre­at­ly, de­pen­ding on the for­ce that cau­ses the bre­ak. Frac­tu­res are of­ten cau­sed by so­me form of high-e­ner­gy col­li­si­on, such as a mo­tor vehi­cle accident, s­port in­ju­ries, ty­pi­cal­ly cau­sed by a twis­ting for­ce, a­w­kward lan­ding, a fall, or a di­rect blow to the lo­wer leg or an­kle.

Signs and symp­toms:

Pain and swel­ling are the most common symp­toms;

De­for­mi­ty or in­sta­bi­li­ty of the leg; I­na­bi­li­ty to be­ar weig­ht on the in­ju­red leg; B­leeding and brui­sing in the leg;

Vi­si­ble de­for­mi­ty;

Numbness and cold­ness in the foot; Ten­der­ness to the tou­ch.

The most common ty­pes of frac­tu­res in­clu­de:

Trans­ver­se frac­tu­re: the bre­ak is a straig­ht ho­ri­zon­tal li­ne going a­cross the bo­ne shaft.

O­bli­que frac­tu­re: has an an­gled li­ne a­cross the shaft.

S­pi­ral frac­tu­re: the frac­tu­re li­ne en­ci­r­cles the shaft li­ke the stri­pes on a can­dy ca­ne. This ty­pe of frac­tu­re is cau­sed by a twis­ting for­ce.

Com­mi­nu­ted frac­tu­re: the bo­ne bre­aks in­to three or mo­re pie­ces.

O­pen frac­tu­re: if a bo­ne bre­aks in such a way that bo­ne frag­ments stick out through the skin or a wound pe­ne­tra­tes do­wn to the bro­ken bo­ne. O­pen frac­tu­res of­ten in­vol­ve much mo­re da­ma­ge to the sur­roun­ding muscles, ten­dons, and li­ga­ments.

A­vul­si­on frac­tu­re: hap­pens w­hen a small chunk of bo­ne that is at­ta­ched to a ten­don or li­ga­ment is pul­led a­way from the main part of the bo­ne.

To­rus frac­tu­re: al­so kno­wn as a buckle frac­tu­re, is an in­com­ple­te frac­tu­re of the shaft of a long bo­ne that is cha­rac­te­ri­sed by bul­ging of the bo­ne.

G­reen­s­tick frac­tu­re: a frac­tu­re in a young, soft bo­ne in which the bo­ne bends and bre­aks.

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