Shear fat

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Tryp­to­phan primes your small in­tes­tine to ab­sorb more mus­cle­build­ing/-re­pair­ing amino acids from your food, ac­cord­ing to re­searchers be­hind a study pub­lished in Amino Acids. Nuts, seeds, cheese, lamb and pork are good sources of tryp­to­phan. 9 -13 GREEN ENERGY An­other rea­son to eat your greens: they’re a great source of lutein, which trig­gers the re­lease of AMPK, dubbed the ‘marathon en­zyme’ be­cause it switches your mi­to­chon­dria – the pow­er­houses in your mus­cle cells – into fat-burn­ing mode. A study in PLoS

One con­firmed this en­hances stamina dur­ing en­durance ex­er­cise. Top lutein sources are: kale, spinach, broc­coli, cress and Swiss chard. 14 CHEW THE FAT The re­search also found that con­sum­ing fats at the same time can triple your body’s ab­sorp­tion of lutein, so think oily fish, av­o­cado or peanut but­ter. 15 KEEP TRACK

The track is a great place for nail­ing speed­work ses­sions, but re­search in the Jour­nal of Sports Medicine and Phys­i­cal

Fit­ness cau­tions that you may need to pay at­ten­tion to not just your split times, but the to­tal time you spend on the oval. The study of 5-K run­ners found do­ing more than 25 per cent of train­ing on a tar­tan track sur­face was as­so­ci­ated with plan­tar heel pain. 16PYRAMID SCHEME Want a ses­sion that’ll de­liver max­i­mum gains in min­i­mum time? Ian Bur­rell, who fin­ished 25th in the 2015 World Marathon Champs in Bei­jing de­spite work­ing full time as a lawyer, rec­om­mends this key work­out:

WHAT A fartlek ‘pyra­mid’, with 1-minute jogs be­tween fast seg­ments.

WHY “It adds a nice mix of speed and strength to­gether to goose up the legs – it’s gru­elling,” says Bur­rell.

WHEN Twice dur­ing a 12- to 16-week marathon train­ing cy­cle, in week 6 or 7 and once more in week 9 or 10.

HOW Start­ing at marathon pace, run seg­ments of 1,2, 3, 4 and 5 min­utes, then 4, 3, 2 and 1. Do the sec­ond 3-minute ef­fort at half-marathon pace and the sec­ond 2 and 1-min­utes at 10-K pace. Then re­peat the en­tire pyra­mid. 17 SEE A 3D MOVIE An in-store tread­mill trot un­der the gaze of lightly amused shop staff is one thing; a full biome­chan­i­cal anal­y­sis is quite an­other, and it’s some­thing that can re­veal the kind of in­for­ma­tion that could help you min­imise injuries and be­come a more ef­fi­cient run­ner. Run­ning clin­ics like the High Per­for­mance Cen­tre in Pretoria are open to the pub­lic, and of­fer a com­plete gait anal­y­sis. Should your re­sults war­rant more spe­cial­ist in­ter­ven­tion, there’s also a bioki­neti­cist, phys­io­ther­a­pist and sports physi­cian at the fa­cil­ity. At the Sports Sci­ence In­sti­tute of South Africa (SSISA) in Cape Town, po­di­a­trist Chris Delpierre of­fers an ini­tial as­sess­ment and gait anal­y­sis. 18- STRETCH YOUR EN­DURANCE

The key to your next great race or PB may be in your warm-up. A study in the Jour­nal of Strength and Con­di­tion­ing

Re­search found well-trained dis­tance run­ners ran sig­nif­i­cantly fur­ther be­fore reach­ing ex­haus­tion fol­low­ing a dy­namic stretch­ing ses­sion than they did af­ter no stretch­ing.

Make time for static stretch­ing in your life, too. It may not lower your in­jury risk, but ac­cord­ing to re­cent Ja­panese re­search, static stretch­ing can lower arterial stiff­ness, and thus heart-at­tack risk. 20PULL THE UDDER ONE

Your per­fect post-run re­hy­dra­tion op­tion may al­ready be chill­ing nicely in your fridge. Un­for­tu­nately it’s not the Sauvi­gnon Blanc… a study in the

Bri­tish Jour­nal of Nu­tri­tion found milk was more ef­fec­tive at hy­drat­ing the body af­ter ex­er­cise than ei­ther wa­ter or a car­bo­hy­drate- elec­trolyte solution. 21USE THE ULTRA- FIT FOR­MULA

In mod­ern-day run­ning maths, 42.2 is no longer enough for many run­ners – but can you re­ally train ad­e­quately for an ultra while hold­ing down a full-time job and spending time with your fam­ily? Yes you can, es­pe­cially if you tar­get a ‘short’ ultra, says 14-time West­ern States 100-mile cham­pion and coach Ann Tra­son (tra­son­run­ “For a 50-K race, ap­ply the 10/10/10 rule from a marathon plan,” says Tra­son. “Lengthen your long runs by 10 per cent, slow long-run pace by 10 per cent and re­cover with 10 per cent more rest or cross-train­ing days. For a 50-miler (80km), the for­mula is 20/20/20.”

22 More shut- eye doesn’t just mean bet­ter re­cov­ery and im­proved break­fast chit- chat; re­search pub­lished in the Jour­nal of An­drol­ogy Re­search found it can raise testos­terone lev­els, which in turn boosts your abil­ity to burn fat. So: you snooze, you lose. In a good way. For­get those ad­mon­ish­ments from ex­as­per­ated par­ents and teach­ers – fid­get­ing, it turns out, can be a very good thing, at least as far as your health is con­cerned. Those con­stant small move­ments keep your kilo­joule-burn tick­ing over dur­ing oth­er­wise seden­tary pe­ri­ods, and can com­bat obe­sity and heart dis­ease, ac­cord­ing to a re­view. They’re still an­noy­ing, though…

Scep­ti­cal as we are of slo­gans, it seems you might be able to take this one as read, rather than think it’s a load of bull. In a study pub­lished in the

run­ners who drank two cans (500ml) of Red Bull energy drink one hour be­fore a 5-K time trial im­proved their per­for­mance by an av­er­age of 30 sec­onds com­pared with a place­boim­bib­ing group. There were no dif­fer­ences in rate of per­ceived ex­er­tion or heart rate. And no, there was no vodka in there… 31 JOIN THE RE­SIS­TANCE Some carbs can ac­tu­ally help you peel off the kilo­grams, which is mu­sic to our ears. Re­sis­tant starch is an undi­gestible fi­bre found in grains, beans and pota­toes (es­pe­cially cooked and cooled); it pro­motes weight loss by fill­ing you up, shut­ting down hunger hor­mones and foil­ing your body’s at­tempts to turn it into sugar. Un­like other carbs, which get turned into body fat when we eat them in ex­cess, re­sis­tant starch passes on through. What’s more, it may also re­duce can­cer risk and boost your im­mune sys­tem, says Dr Chris­tine Gerb­stadt, a nu­tri­tion­ist and spokes­woman for the American Di­etetic As­so­ci­a­tion. 30 GIVE YOUR­SELF SOME WINGS 29 SMART MOVE

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