To­day in the USA

The Poultry Bulletin - - CONTENTS - By Pro­fes­sor Si­mon Shane

As the US emerges from the AI out­break, the fo­cus is on dis­ease.

AI out­break at an end

The USDA has an­nounced that the last con­firmed out­break in lay­ing hens oc­curred in Wright County, Iowa on 17 June. To date, 42 mil­lion layer hens and re­place­ment pul­lets have been de­pop­u­lated, rep­re­sent­ing 10% of pro­duc­ing hens and 6% of re­place­ment pul­lets.

Thirty six farms were in­fected in Iowa, five each

in Min­ne­sota and Ne­braska, two in Wis­con­sin and one in South Dakota, for a to­tal of 49 premises.

The Spring 2015 HPAI epor­nitic in­volved 210 com­mer­cial units of which 159 com­prised turkey growout farms, 49 egg pro­duc­tion com­plexes or rear­ing pul­lets and two mixed species. All farms have been de­pop­u­lated at the present time. There are no pre­sump­tive pos­i­tive cases await­ing con­fir­ma­tion by the Na­tional Vet­eri­nary Ser­vices Lab­o­ra­tory.

CDC in­ves­ti­gates small hatchery Sal­mo­nella out­breaks

An in­ten­sive na­tion­wide in­ves­ti­ga­tion of salmonel­losis is un­der­way in the U.S. Ac­cord­ing to a June 29 re­lease by the Cen­ters for Dis­ease Con­trol and Pre­ven­tion (CDC), there have been 181 cases in 40 states re­ported, rep­re­sent­ing four dis­tinct out­breaks with clin­i­cal signs ap­par­ent from Jan­uary 6 through to June 13, 2015.

The Sal­mo­nella serotypes iden­ti­fied in­clude:

• S. En­teridi­tis. 40 cases from 16 states with 33 hos­pi­tal­i­sa­tions;

• S. Hadar. 69 cases from 30 states with 19 hos­pi­tal­i­sa­tions;

• S. In­di­ana. 56 cases from 16 states with 9 hos­pi­tal­i­sa­tions;

• S. Muenchen. 16 cases from 8 states with 2 hos­pi­tal­i­sa­tions. In­ter­views with 95 pa­tients dis­closed that 86 % had close con­tact with a newly ac­quired chick, poult or duck­ling within a week of on­set of symp­toms. All poul­try was pur­chased from small mail-or­der hatch­eries or from feed and farm-sup­ply stores.

In 2014, the CDC com­pleted a multi-year study im­pli­cat­ing a mail-or­der hatchery in Ohio as the source of a multi- state out­break in­volv­ing 363 con­firmed cases of salmonel­losis in 43 states.

The ban­ning of in­ter­state trans­mis­sion of small pet tur­tles in the 1970s ef­fec­tively elim­i­nated this source of in­fec­tion. This prece­dent should be con­sid­ered for small hatch­eries to pre­vent on­go­ing out­breaks. At the very least ap­pro­pri­ate warn­ings should be is­sued by mail-or­der hatch­eries re­gard­ing the risk of con­tract­ing an in­fec­tion from newly-hatched poul­try. If the reg­u­la­tory sys­tem and the med­i­cal estab­lish­ment can­not elim­i­nate this ob­vi­ous source of Sal­mo­nella in­fec­tion then per­haps the le­gal pro­fes­sion may be more ef­fec­tive.

Dutch egg pro­ces­sors pre­pare to ex­port to US

Ac­cord­ing to the For­eign Agri­cul­tural Ser­vice GAIN Report Num­ber NL5019, four Dutch egg pro­ces­sors

were awarded el­i­gi­bil­ity to ex­port to the U.S. This fol­lows a June 2014 dec­la­ra­tion of equiv­a­lence with USDA and USDA-FSIS rules and stan­dards as de­ter­mined by au­dits.

A new health cer­tifi­cate will be re­quired to al­low the four pro­ces­sors to ship prod­uct. The Nether­lands cur­rently ex­ports 165,000 met­ric tons of egg prod­ucts an­nu­ally to a value of $400 mil­lion. Of this to­tal, ap­prox­i­mately 25% is fur­ther-pro­cessed. Hol­land last ex­ported prod­uct to the US in 2012.

El­i­gi­ble pro­ces­sors com­prise Bouwhuis En­thoven B.V.; Adri­aan Geode B.V.; In­terovo Egg Group B.V. and Van den Berg Eipro­ducten B.V.

JBS ac­quires Moy Park

JBS SA of Brazil has ac­quired the Moy Park Ltd., busi­ness from Mar­frig Global Foods SA. JBS will pay R15 bil­lion in cash and will as­sume debt to­tal­ing R3.6 bil­lion.

The ac­qui­si­tion will al­low JBS to sup­ply mar­kets in Bri­tain and the EU. In com­ment­ing on the deal, Moy Park ex­ec­u­tive, Jeremiah O’cal­laghan said “this trans­ac­tion rep­re­sents an im­por­tant step in the JBS strat­egy to grow its port­fo­lio of pre­pared and con­ve­nience prod­ucts with high val­ueadded prod­ucts”.

In 2013, JBS pur­chased SEARA from Mar­frig ex­pand­ing do­mes­tic pro­duc­tion in Brazil.

USDA im­ple­ments sur­veil­lance of HPAI in mi­gra­tory birds

Ac­cord­ing to a July 2, 2015 re­lease by USDA, two sur­veil­lance pro­grams will be in­tro­duced to mon­i­tor wa­ter­fowl pop­u­la­tions for HPAI com­menc­ing in July 2015 and ex­tend­ing through March 2016. The first plan of the US In­ter­a­gency Strate­gic Plan for Early De­tec­tion and Mon­i­tor­ing for Avian In­fluenza of Sig­nif­i­cance in Wild Birds will in­volve fed­eral, state, univer­sity and non­govern­men­tal or­gan­i­sa­tions. The sec­ond plan, the 2015 Sur­veil­lance Plan for Highly Path­o­genic Avian In­fluenza in Wa­ter­fowl in the United States, out­lines sur­veil­lance pro­ce­dures through March 2016.

The re­spec­tive plans were de­vel­oped by the In­ter­a­gency Steer­ing Com­mit­tee for Sur­veil­lance for HPAI in Wild Birds. The Com­mit­tee in­cluded con­tri­bu­tions from USDAAPHIS; De­part­ment of the In­te­rior; U.S. Fish and Wildlife Ser­vice; U.S. De­part­ment of Health and Hu­man Ser­vices; CDC; and the Na­tional Fly­way Coun­cil.

The sur­vey will in­clude teal, mal­lards and pin­tails among other birds. Spec­i­mens will be ob­tained from live cap­tured mi­gra­tory birds, from hunterkilled birds and also fe­cal sam­ples.

It is con­sid­ered es­sen­tial to in­ves­ti­gate the epi­demi­ol­ogy of var­i­ous avian in­fluenza strains in mi­gra­tory birds. The pres­ence of po­ten­tially highly path­o­genic strains should serve

as an early warn­ing to the poul­try in­dus­try. The great­est con­cern is in­tro­duc­tion of H5 and H7 strains into the At­lantic fly­way and also the pos­si­bil­ity of the emer­gence and dis­sem­i­na­tion of novel re­as­sor­tants with en­hanced pathogenic­ity or in­fec­tiv­ity.

Price rise in UK blamed on US AI

Ac­cord­ing to a re­cent press report, the chair­man of the Bri­tish Egg Prod­ucts As­so­ci­a­tion, El­wyn Grif­fiths, com­mented that prices of do­mes­tic eggs in the UK have in­creased by as much as 60% dur­ing June as a re­sult of out­breaks of HPAI in the US.

These dire warn­ings of price es­ca­la­tion from the in­dus­try as­so­ci­a­tion are re­garded as puffery since there is no ev­i­dence that sig­nif­i­cant quan­ti­ties of ei­ther egg liq­uid or shell eggs have been di­verted from the EU or UK mar­kets to the U.S. En­quiries to the USDA-AMS have not gen­er­ated any spe­cific fig­ures but im­pres­sions con­veyed by con­tacts sug­gest that quan­ti­ties of break­ing stock and some liq­uid has been im­ported - but nowhere near the vol­ume that would af­fect ei­ther EU or UK do­mes­tic prices.

Un­for­tu­nately fig­ures on im­ports run ap­prox­i­mately sixty days be­hind prod­uct en­ter­ing the US and pub­li­ca­tion of sta­tis­tics by USDAFAS. Ac­cord­ingly it will be at least six weeks be­fore ac­tual data is re­leased and can be an­a­lysed.

Pro­jected poul­try pro­duc­tion 2015 and 2016

The re­cent HPAI out­break did not af­fect the broiler in­dus­try other than by re­duc­ing ex­ports of leg quar­ters re­sult­ing in a loss in rev­enue of R18.5 bil­lion. This will be made up in part by di­ver­sion to the do­mes­tic mar­ket and by sub­se­quent ex­ports of frozen prod­uct in stor­age when em­bar­gos are lifted.

The egg in­dus­try was se­verely im­pacted by the loss of 30 mil­lion hens and 3 mil­lion pul­lets with 85 per­cent of mor­tal­ity com­plexes of 1 to 4 mil­lion hens held for egg­break­ing. Per capita egg con­sump­tion will de­cline by over 5 per­cent in 2015→

com­pared to 2014 and the rate of re­build­ing flocks will de­press con­sump­tion in 2016.

Turkey pro­duc­tion was af­fected by the loss of 7 mil­lion grow­ing birds rep­re­sent­ing 10 per­cent of in­ven­tory. Since breed­ers were spared, re­stock­ing farms will pro­ceed rapidly.

Al­ter­na­tives to growth­pro­mot­ing an­tibi­otics

Dr Steve R. Col­lett, Clin­i­cal As­so­ci­ate Pro­fes­sor, Univer­sity of Ge­or­gia, re­viewed al­ter­na­tives to con­ven­tional feed ad­di­tive an­tibi­otics on May 19 at the All­tech Re­bla­tion Sym­po­sium held in Lexington, KY. In in­tro­duc­ing the topic of al­ter­na­tives to an­tibi­otics, Dr Col­lett stressed con­sumer con­cerns and ac­tions by reg­u­la­tory au­thor­i­ties to re­strict the use of non­ther­a­peu­tic an­tibi­otics.

The Food and Drug Ad­min­is­tra­tion has agreed with 25 phar­ma­ceu­ti­cal man­u­fac­tur­ers to with­draw la­bel ap­proval for growth pro­mot­ing an­tibi­otics ef­fec­tive Jan­uary 2016. This ac­tion par­al­lels the dec­la­ra­tion by many quick ser­vice and restau­rant chains to phase out serv­ing chicken raised with feed-ad­di­tive an­tibi­otics. Ma­jor in­te­gra­tors in turn have an­nounced that they have ei­ther with­drawn or are in the process of phas­ing out an­tibi­otics. Ex­cep­tions are made for spe­cific ther­a­peu­tic ap­pli­ca­tions un­der vet­eri­nary su­per­vi­sion and will not in­volve drugs that are com­mon to hu­man ther­apy.

Dr Col­lett has for a num­ber of years pro­moted the use of pro­bi­otics, pre­bi­otics and es­sen­tial oils to man­age the com­po­si­tion of in­testi­nal flora in or­der to pro­mote ben­e­fi­cial or­gan­isms. His ap­proach has been shown to achieve growth rates and feed con­ver­sions equiv­a­lent to flocks re­ceiv­ing an­tibi­otic ad­di­tives.

The sys­tem ad­vo­cated com­prises the se­quence:

• “Seed­ing” - in­volves pro­vid­ing the chick with ben­e­fi­cial in­testi­nal or­gan­isms in the form of a pro­bi­otic spray at the hatchery or as an ad­di­tive to feed or wa­ter. These “ben­e­fi­cial” gen­era in­clude lac­to­bacilli and en­te­ro­cocci

• “Feed­ing” - pro­lif­er­a­tion

of ben­e­fi­cial flora is en­cour­aged by sup­ple­ment­ing di­ets with or­ganic acids. Ad­min­is­tra­tion can be car­ried out dur­ing the first seven days, dur­ing stress or af­ter any ther­a­peu­tic use of an­tibi­otics.

• “Weed­ing” - in­volves se­lec­tive ex­clu­sion of po­ten­tially dele­te­ri­ous flora us­ing com­pet­i­tive ex­clu­sion cul­tures, es­sen­tial oils or pre­bi­otics which in­hibit pathogens. A ma­jor de­ter­rent to com­pletely “drug-free” pro­grams is the with­drawal of an­tic­oc­cidi­als in­clud­ing the ionophore class of com­pounds. Mild coc­cid­io­sis can re­sult in pro­lif­er­a­tion of Clostrid­ium per­frin­gens in the in­testi­nal tract re­sult­ing in en­tero­tox­emia which is man­i­fested as necrotic en­teri­tis, hep­ati­tis and even gan­grenous der­mati­tis.

Dr Col­lett stressed the need for ap­pro­pri­ate en­vi­ron­men­tal man­age­ment of houses, with spe­cial at­ten­tion to ven­ti­la­tion which in­flu­ences lit­ter qual­ity and in turn in­flu­ences coc­cid­io­sis and en­tero­tox­emia.¡

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